Yellows


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yellows

[′yel·ōz]
(plant pathology)
Any of various fungus diseases of plants characterized by yellowing of the leaves which later turn brown, become brittle, and die; affects cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower, peach, sugarbeet, and other plants.

Yellows

 

diseases of plants— such as aster, celery, and peach yellows; witches’-broom of delphinium; purple top wilt of potato; and big bud— caused chiefly by mycoplasma-like organisms and by viruses.

Diseased plants are stunted and chlorotic, with many lateral shoots pressed to the main stem. The flowers have elongated sepals, deformed corollas that turn green, and an ovary that germinates into leaflets. Yellows attack many plants (potato, clover, onion, carrot, ornamentals). The reservoirs of the causative agents are weeds such as dandelion and field sow thistle. The disease is transmitted by various species of cicadas after the incubation period of the causative agent in their bodies and also by aphids. Yellows decrease the yields of greens, fruits, and seeds and impair the ornamental qualities of flowering plants. Some yellows (for example, cabbage yellows) are caused by fungi. The symptoms of these yellows are yellowing, wilting of leaves, and premature death of the plant. Control measures include crop rotation, cultivation of resistant varieties, removal of diseased plants, and control of weeds and disease carriers.

REFERENCES

Smith, K. Virusnye bolei.nl rastenii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Ryzhkov, V. L., and A. E. Protsenko. Atlas virusnykh bolcznei rastenii. Moscow, 1968.
Ploaie, P., R. G. Granados, and K. Maramorosch. “My coplasma-like Structures in Periwinkle Plants With Crimean Yellows, European Clover Dwarf, Stolbur, and Parastolbur.” Phytopathology, 1968, vol. 58, no. 8, p. 1063.

A. E. PROTSENKO

References in classic literature ?
Bending down suddenly he picked up an ear of the yellow corn and threw it at the fence.
Could it be possible that in some far-off corner of the planet there still existed a remnant of the ancient race of yellow men?
On a fine Sunday it presents this appearance nearly all day long, while, up the stream, and down the stream, lie, waiting their turn, outside the gates, long lines of still more boats; and boats are drawing near and passing away, so that the sunny river, from the Palace up to Hampton Church, is dotted and decked with yellow, and blue, and orange, and white, and red, and pink.
He is now one of the favorites of Princess Ozma, and she has made him the Emperor of the Winkies--the Country where all is yellow.
They were not pretty to look upon with their close-set eyes, flat noses, long upper lips and protruding yellow fangs.
Two of the eleven are filled with Marie van Houtte roses, two with Viscountess Folkestone, two with Laurette Messimy, one with Souvenir de la Malmaison, one with Adam and Devoniensis, two with Persian Yellow and Bicolor, and one big bed behind the sun-dial with three sorts of red roses (seventy-two in all), Duke of Teck, Cheshunt Scarlet, and Prefet de Limburg.
Their cropped black heads stuck out from the bright yellow wall of countless small blossoms.
If that was in this yellow cloth--yes," answered the injured man.
The patch of yellow sunlight on the floor travelled back toward the stairway, and grandmother and I talked about my journey, and about the arrival of the new Bohemian family; she said they were to be our nearest neighbours.
But the directions he had given us about keeping a yellow warehouse on our starboard hand till we opened a white church to the larboard, and then keeping that on the larboard hand till we made a corner three points to the starboard, and that done, then ask the first man we met where the place was: these crooked directions of his very much puzzled us at first, especially as, at the outset, Queequeg insisted that the yellow warehouse --our first point of departure --must be left on the larboard hand, whereas I had understood Peter Coffin to say it was on the starboard.
Books Yellow, Red, and Green and Blue, All true, or just as good as true, And here's the Yellow Book for YOU!
There is likewise an undergrowth of aromatic shrubs, creepers, and clambering vines, that render the forests almost impenetrable; together with berries of various kinds, such as gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, both red and yellow, very large and finely flavored whortleberries, cranberries, serviceberries, blackberries, currants, sloes, and wild and choke cherries.