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a city in Stavropol’ Krai, RSFSR; a resort in the Caucasian Mineral Waters group. It lies in the valley of the Podkumok River at an elevation of 600–650 m, a railway station on the Mineral’nye Vody-Kislovodsk line, 43 km to the southwest of Mineral’nye Vody. Population, 66,000 (1971; 16,000 in 1939).

Essentuki is a health resort that offers mineral waters for baths, although they are used mainly for drinking. The summers are warm (average July temperature, 20°C) and the winters, mild (average January temperature, −4°C); the precipitation averages about 520 mm annually. The therapeutic agents are carbonated waters (mostly sodium chloride hydrocarbonate) with the following chemical compositions:

(spring No. 17),

(spring No. 4),

(spring No. 20). Waters are bottled and used for drinking. The pump rooms for these springs are located in a spacious park.

The carbonated water of the wells of Essentuki Narzans (a kind of mineral water) Nos. 1 and 2 are used for bathing, as is the water from the sodium-calcium sulfate-hydrocarbonate Gaazo-Ponomarevskii spring. There is pelotherapy (Tambukanskoe Lake silty mud) and treatment available for patients with gastrointestinal, liver, and biliary disorders and metabolic disturbances (obesity, gout, and sugar diabetes). There are sanatoriums for adults and children, boarding houses, bathhouses, mud-treatment clinics, inhalation therapy, and mechanotherapy institutes.

Essentuki has plants for bottling mineral water, in addition to canning, milk, brewing, and meat combines and knitwear, garment, and fashion footwear factories.

Essentuki arose in the 1830’s at the site of a military fortification that had been built in 1798. Its development as a health resort began in the second half of the 19th century, and it became a city in 1917.

Essentuki consists of three sections: the former cossack village, with village-type houses, the health resort, and the industrial section (Novye Essentuki). The health resort section has a park (40 hectares; planting was begun in 1849), a number of eclectic resort buildings dating from the turn of the 20th century (the N. A. Semashko mud-treatment center, the pump room for spring No. 4, both 1913–15). The Soviet period has seen the construction of numerous sanatoriums, such as the Moscow (1964), the Kalinin (1965), and the Ukraine (1972), boarding houses, a theater seating 1500 (1960’s), and a Narzan gallery; in addition, the park has been expanded. New Essentuki contains residential microraions (neighborhood units in urban planning) built with large-block and large-panel prefabricated five-story homes (second half of the 1960’s; Stavropol’ Institute of Construction Design).


Vishnevskii, A., A. Khodykin, and I. Konovalov. Kurort Essentuki. Stavropol’, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
Minister of the Russian Federation for North Caucasus Affairs Lev Kuznetsov, Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in the North Caucasus Federal District Oleg Belaventsev and Head of the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic Yuri Kokov held a meeting in Yessentuki on the development of the all-season tourist and recreational complex "Elbrus".
For now, they call the expedition a success and make their way by train to the safe haven of Yessentuki ("Essentuki"), a town known for its mineral springs that sits almost dead center on a spit of land separating the Black and Caspian Seas.
According to our information, they were heading from Chechnya to the city of Yessentuki in the Stavropol Territory," the spokesman said adding that a criminal case was launched on murder charges.
Summary: Yessentuki, Stavropol territory, Jumada Al-Awwal 01, 1432 / April 05, 2011, SPA -- As many as 95 settlements have been cut off electricity supplies by the stormy winds in Russia&'s North Caucasian republic of Dagestan, a spokesman for the North Caucasian electricity supplier told Itar-Tass.
The bomb was set off in the train's second carriage at about 8am (5am GMT), in a rush-hour attack that seemed calculated to kill and injure a maximum number of people, as the train was approaching the station at Yessentuki, about 750 miles south of Moscow.
A suicide bomb attack on a commuter train near the town of Yessentuki in south-west Russia near Chechnya kills at least 40 people and injures 200.
The bomber hit the rush-hour train, packed with school children, just outside Yessentuki station, 750 miles south of Moscow.
A blast in the nearby town of Yessentuki in the Stavropol region injured 12, and two Interior Ministry servicemen were killed in a third explosion in Karachayevo-Cherkessia.
A simultaneous blast in the nearby town of Yessentuki injured 13 people - and two Interior Ministry inspectors were killed in a third car bomb explosion in the village of Adyge-Khabl.
Address : 352633, Stavropol Territory, Yessentuki, Kislovodskaya Str.
Address : 357635, Stavropol Krai, Yessentuki City, Oktyabrskaya Street, House 460