alkyne

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alkyne

(ăl`kīn), any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (see chemical bondchemical bond,
mechanism whereby atoms combine to form molecules. There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are strong enough to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to be regarded as an
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). Alkynes with one triple bond have the general formula CnH2n−2. In the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) system of chemical nomenclature, the name of an alkyne is derived from the name of the corresponding alkanealkane
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bond). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2.
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 by replacing the -ane alkane suffix with -yne and, if necessary, adding a prefix to indicate the location of the triple bond in the molecule. The IUPAC name of the simplest alkyne, HC≡CH, is thus ethyne, which is derived from ethane. Ethyne is more commonly known as acetyleneacetylene
or ethyne
, HC≡CH, a colorless gas. It melts at −80.8°C; and boils at −84.0°C;. Offensive odors often noted in commercial acetylene are due to impurities. Acetylene forms explosive mixtures with oxygen or air.
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; it is an extremely important starting material in commercial chemical synthesis. The next simplest alkyne is propyne, CH3C≡CH. There are two butynes, 1-butyne and 2-butyne, which are structural isomersisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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 that differ in the location of the triple bond in their molecule. The alkynes are sometimes referred to as the acetylene series, the higher members of the series being named as derivatives of acetylene, e.g., propyne as methylacetylene, 1-butyne as ethylacetylene, and 2-butyne as dimethylacetylene. The usefulness of the alkynes in chemical synthesis is due both to the reactions of the triple bond itself and to the relative acidity of a hydrogen atom bonded to a triply bonded carbon.
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alkyne

[′al‚kīn]
(organic chemistry)
One of a group of organic compounds containing a carbon-to-carbon triple bond.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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