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1 City (1990 pop. 16,700), seat of Harvey co., S central Kans., in an agricultural area; inc. 1872. It is a railroad division point with railroad shops and has a large mobile home industry in addition to oil wells. Machinery, motor vehicle parts, plastic products, glass, and furniture are also produced, and there is flour milling. The Chisholm TrailChisholm Trail,
route over which vast herds of cattle were driven from Texas to the railheads in Kansas after the Civil War. Its name is generally believed to come from Jesse Chisholm, a part-Cherokee trader who, in the spring of 1866, drove his wagon, heavily loaded with
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 passed through the site. In the early 1870s, German Mennonites from Russia brought seed for what became the first hard winter wheat grown in Kansas. The city still has a large Mennonite population, and a monument to their ancestors is there. Bethel College is in North Newton.

2 City (1990 pop. 82,585), Middlesex co., E Mass., a suburb of Boston on the Charles River; settled before 1640, inc. as a city 1873. It comprises 14 residential villages. Industries include publishing and the manufacture of chemicals, precision instruments, and computers. Newton is known as a regional education center. The city is the seat of Andover Newton Theological School, Mount Ida College, Pine Manor College, and a campus of Boston College. Horace MannMann, Horace
, 1796–1859, American educator, b. Franklin, Mass. He received a sparse preliminary schooling, but succeeded in entering Brown in the sophomore class and graduated with honors in 1819.
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, Nathaniel HawthorneHawthorne, Nathaniel,
1804–64, American novelist and short-story writer, b. Salem, Mass., one of the great masters of American fiction. His novels and tales are penetrating explorations of moral and spiritual conflicts.
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, Mary Baker EddyEddy, Mary Baker,
1821–1910, founder of the Christian Science movement, b. Bow, N.H. As physical frailty prevented her regular school attendance, she spent the early part of her education learning at home from her brother Albert Baker.
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, and Samuel Francis SmithSmith, Samuel Francis,
1808–95, American Baptist clergyman and poet, b. Boston. He is remembered as the author of the national hymn "America," written while he was a student at Andover Theological Seminary. Among his many other hymns is "The Morning Light Is Breaking."
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 lived in Newton.


abbr. N, unit of forceforce,
commonly, a "push" or "pull," more properly defined in physics as a quantity that changes the motion, size, or shape of a body. Force is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction.
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 in the mks systemmks system,
system of units of measurement based on the metric system and having the meter of length, the kilogram of mass, and the second of time as its fundamental units. Other mks units include the newton of force, the joule of work or energy, and the watt of power.
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 of units, which is based on the metric systemmetric system,
system of weights and measures planned in France and adopted there in 1799; it has since been adopted by most of the technologically developed countries of the world.
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; it is the force that produces an acceleration of 1 meter per second per second when exerted on a mass of 1 kilogram. The newton is named for Sir Isaac Newton.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


(new -tŏn) Symbol: N. The SI unit of force, equal to the force that gives a mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second per second.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in the northeastern United States, in the state of Massachusetts. Population, 91,000 (1970). Newton is a residential and industrial suburb to the west of Boston. A total of 13,000 workers are employed in industry there. Leading industries include radioelectronics, instrument-making, light industry, and general machine-building.



the unit of force in the International System of Units. It is named after I. Newton, and the international symbol is N. The newton is equal to the force that imparts to a body with a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec2 in the direction of the force. With the adoption of the International System, the newton will replace other units of force, such as the kilogram-force (1 kgf = 9.80665 N), the ton-force (1 ton-force = 9806.65 N), the dyne (1 dyne = 10−5 N), and the British pound-force (1 lbf = 4.45 N).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The unit of force in the meter-kilogram-second system, equal to the force which will impart an acceleration of 1 meter per second squared to the International Prototype Kilogram mass. Symbolized N. Formerly known as large dyne.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

newton (N)

The unit of force in the International System of Units; the force necessary to produce an acceleration of 1 metre per second-square in a body having a mass of 1 kilogram.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the derived SI unit of force that imparts an acceleration of 1 metre per second per second to a mass of 1 kilogram; equivalent to 105 dynes or 7.233 poundals.


Sir Isaac. 1642--1727, English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and philosopher, noted particularly for his law of gravitation, his three laws of motion, his theory that light is composed of corpuscles, and his development of calculus independently of Leibnitz. His works include Principia Mathematica (1687) and Opticks (1704)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(Named after Isaac Newton (1642-1727)). Rapin et al, Swiss Federal Inst Tech, Lausanne 1981. General purpose expression language, syntactically ALGOL-like, with object-oriented and functional features and a rich set of primitives for concurrency. Used for undergraduate teaching at Lausanne (EPFL).

Versions: Newton 2.6 for VAX/VMS and Newton 1.2 for DEC-Alpha/OSF-1.

E-mail: J. Hulaas <>. /pub/languages/Newton.

["Procedural Objects in Newton", Ch. Rapin, SIGPLAN Notices 24(9) (Sep 1989)].

["The Newton Language", Ch. Rapin et al, SIGPLAN Notices 16(8):31-40 (Aug 1981)].

["Programming in Newton", Wuetrich and Menu, EPFL 1982].


This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


(1) (newton) A unit of force in the MKS system. It is the force required to accelerate one kilogram by one meter per second squared.

(2) A set of mobile computing technologies from Apple introduced in 1993 with its MessagePad personal digital assistant (PDA). The ARM-based MessagePad included handwriting recognition, an infrared port for local data transfer and a fax/modem for email and faxes. Although the MessagePad was the name of the device, it was commonly called the "Newton." The handwriting technology was often criticized for not being up to par; however, proponents of the device claimed it worked well if the user had the patience to train it properly.

The Newton eMate
In 1997, Apple offered the educational market a Newton-derived portable computer called the "eMate 300." Also using an ARM processor, the eMate had a full-size keyboard that was housed in a case similar in design to the iBook laptop, which was introduced two years later.

A Five-Year Reign
In 1998, Apple stopped production of Newton products due to competition from Palm PDAs, which were becoming popular. Apple folded the Newton, Inc. subsidiary back into the company after having spun it off a year earlier to specialize in the PDA niche. Some of the components of the Newton handwriting technology made their way into the Mac OS X operating system a few years later. See PDA and ARM.

Apple's MessagePad
More commonly known as the "Newton," which is the technology behind the MessagePad, this handheld unit pioneered the PDA. (Image courtesy of Apple Inc.)
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