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Related to Yogacara: Madhyamika


(yō'gəkär`ə) [Skt.,=yoga practice], philosophical school of Mahayana BuddhismBuddhism
, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and
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, also known as the Vijnanavada or Consciousness School. The founders of this school in India were Maitreya (270–350), his disciple Asanga (c.375–430), and Asanga's younger half-brother Vasubandhu (c.400–480), who was also the greatest systematizer of the AbhidharmaAbhidharma
[Skt.,=higher dharma, or doctrine], schools of Buddhist philosophy. Early Buddhism analyzed experience into 5 skandhas or aggregates, and alternatively into 18 dhatus or elements.
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 type of Buddhist philosophy. The school held that consciousness (vijnana) is real, but its objects are constructions and unreal. The school's teachings are thus often characterized by the phrase "consciousness-only" (citta-matra) or "representation-only" (vijnapti-matra). The content of consciousness is produced not by independently existing objects but by the inner modifications of consciousness itself. A theory of eight kinds of consciousness was formed to explain how this process functions. The deepest level of consciousness is the "store-consciousness" (alaya-vijnana), which is both individual and universal and contains the seeds or traces of past actions, which are projected into manifestation through the "defiled mind" and the six sense-consciousnesses (the five physical senses plus mind or thought). The school was transmitted to China as the Fa-hsiang. It eventually syncretized with the MadhyamikaMadhyamika
[Skt.,=of the middle], philosophical school of Mahayana Buddhism, based on the teaching of "emptiness" (see sunyata) and named for its adherence to the "middle path" between the views of existence or eternalism and nonexistence or nihilism.
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See D. T. Suzuki, Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra (1930); S. Radhakrishman and C. A. Moore, A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy (1957); A. K. Chatterjee, The Yogacara Idealism (1962); C. L. Tripathi, The Problem of Knowledge in Yogacara Buddhism (1972).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Hence, this self-synthesizing universe paradigm of quantum physics fully corresponds with the Buddhist Yogacara assumption that all perceptions do leave traces which make future similar perceptions more probable--origins of the potentialities within the quantum realm.
It means to Manas-vijnana (mind-knowledge) which is the seventh of the eight consciousnesses taught in Yogacara Buddhism.
This is typical of thinkers of the Consciousness-Only school and the Yogacara school from which it developed.(1) None of the distinctions or kinds of consciousness they invoke involve in any way "the various groupings to which one belongs."
Tzohar, A Yogacara Buddhist Theory of Metaphor, Oxford 2018).
(7) This is not the case for the other major branch of mainstream Mahayana--the Yogacara (also known as Cittamatra and Vijnanavada).
Moreover, while the Golden Light Sutra of the Four Deva Kings and the Lotus Sutra may have been important to the Nara establishment in the past, Kukai's newly imported Vajraeekhara and Mahavairocana Sutras, as well as the Diamond and Womb world mandalas, illustrated these Yogacara and Tathagatagarbha philosophical texts and elaborated the old radiance and lotus imagery for the new Heian order.
Damien Keown (2003: 341) writing in the Oxford Dictionary of Buddhism holds that: "Yogacara thought arguably represents the most complex and sophisticated philosophy developed in Indian Buddhism but this richness has led to considerable difficulties in accurately evaluating its doctrines." In order to begin developing an understanding of this vast and often highly abstract school of thought, it is necessary to place it in the context of the earlier Buddhist schools from which it developed.
In fact it is a discussion on the Yogacara concept of self-perception (rang rig, svasamvedana).
Arguably, both the Madhyamika and the Yogacara should be interpreted soteriologically, which means finally that Keenan's proposals are theologically specific as well, especially in terms of being shaped by explicit soteriological commitments and the concomitant practices directed toward those ends.
La Litterature Yogacara d'apres Bouston", Musoeon, (1905), vol.