Yung-lo

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Yung-lo

(yo͞ong-lô), 1359–1424, reign title of the 3d emperor (1403–24) of the Chinese MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
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 dynasty, whose personal name was Chu Ti. He rose to power in N China after being delegated by his father, the Ming founding emperor Hung Wu (reigned 1368–98), to lead the fight against the retreating Mongols. He usurped the throne from his nephew, Emperor Chien Wen (reigned 1399–1402), after a devastating civil war. Under his reign six maritime expeditions led by the Muslim eunuch Cheng HoCheng Ho
or Zheng He
, 1371–c.1433, admiral, diplomat, and explorer during China's Ming dynasty. At 10 he was captured by Chinese troops in Yunnan, castrated, and sent into the army.
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 sailed as far as Arabia and E Africa, and tributary relations were established with many kingdoms in SE Asia. Yung-lo focused his energy, however, on securing defense in the north. As emperor he personally led five vast military campaigns far across the steppe to subdue the Mongol tribes. The importance of the north was confirmed when in 1421 he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, just S of the Great WallGreat Wall of China,
series of fortifications, c.3,890 mi (6,260 km) long (not including trenches and natural defensive barriers), winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Liaoning prov.
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