He told Pilling that Japan lost the balance between gJapanese spirit and Western knowledgeh (wakon yosai
) in the lead-up to its militarism of the 1930s and 40s.
We should note that we established "Japan" and "Japanese" through translation of the Western culture under the slogan of "Japanese spirit, Western technologies" ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]wakon yosai
Fujiwara illuminates points of particular interest, including kakure kirishitan, wakon yosai
, and Mukyokai.
These concerns led to the philosophy of wakon yosai
(meaning Japanese spirit, Western technology), the concept that Japan could import Western technology, institutions, and even ideas, but would imbue them with Japanese spirit.
It became possible because Japan's modernism and traditionalism evolved "both at the same time." For Pettman, this hybrid and unique Japan--capable of combining modernist science with other cultural perspectives (yosai
tokon [Western knowledge, Eastern spirit])--represents a "fresh source" for understanding conflict and conflict resolution that may even prevail over Western approaches in a globalizing world (Pettman 2010, 4, 13).
Tokyo-centeredness has been simulated by the state-system's modern ideology of "Wakon Yosai
" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Japanese Soul, Western Talent).
The idea that the Japanese are particularly adept at simulating the West has its roots in the Meiji concept of wakon yosai
(Japanese spirit, Western techniques) which sought to create a sense of Japanese national continuity against the background of rapid modernization.
Con la restauracion Meiji, en 1868, nace una expresion muy significativa: Wakon Yosai
, que significa "espiritu japones y conocimiento occidental", o sea, mantener la cultura nipona pero adaptar lo mejor de Occidente, como la tecnologia, la educacion, la politica o las fuerzas armadas.
After the restoration of the Meiji monarchy, in the reign of Tenno the holy king who headed the government, the army and the Shinto religion, which had been reorganized into the national religion, Japan was quick to introduce the best aspects of western civilization under the slogans 'Wakon yosai
' (Western techniques and Japanese soul), 'Fukoku kyohei' (Enrich and militarize the state) and 'Datsua nyuo (Leave Asia in order to become like the West).
Thus we have the Japanese wakon yosai
(Japanese spirit with Western ability) and the Chinese zhongxueweiti-xixueweiyong (Chinese substances and Western functions), and more recently the influential baimao heimao lun (White cat, black cat, that who catches mice is a good cat).