Ypres


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Ypres

Ypres (ēˈprə), Du. Ieper, commune (1991 pop. 35,235), West Flanders prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. It is an agricultural market and an industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, textile-making machinery, and processed food. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was one of the most powerful towns of Flanders, with a flourishing cloth industry that rivaled those of Ghent and Bruges. However, political and social unrest and foreign wars led to the decline of this industry. A center of resistance to Spanish rule, the town was taken (1584) and sacked by Alessandro Farnese. It was held by France from 1678 to 1716 and from 1792 to 1814. In World War I, Ypres was the scene of three great battles (see Ypres, battles of). The town was completely destroyed during the war and was later rebuilt. Among the city's restored buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of St. Martin and the magnificent cloth-workers hall (both originally built in the 13th cent.). On the ramparts of the fortifications built (late 17th cent.) by Vauban is a British memorial gate designed by Reginald Blomfield. Outside the town's walls are some 40 military cemeteries.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ypres

 

(Flemish, leper), a city in northwestern Belgium, in the province of West Flanders. Population, 18,500 (1967). It is the site of textile and food industries. Machines used in the production of textiles are also manufactured. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1109. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Ypres competed with Bruges and Ghent as the center of the production of cloth by guilds. Later the city went into a decline. Architectural landmarks in Ypres include the Cathedral of St. Martin (13th-15th centuries) and Cloth Hall (1200–1304), a masterpiece of secular Gothic architecture. Other monuments of medieval Lowlands architecture have also been preserved.

During World War I (1914–18) in the vicinity of Ypres, the German Fourth Army launched a counterattack against the Ypres salient (April 1915) and forestalled an offensive being prepared by the Anglo-French forces. The Germans occupied most of the salient. On April 22, the first day of fighting, the Germans used a weapon of chemical warfare (chlorine gas) and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. This was the first use of chemical warfare in the history of war. In 1917, from July 7 to November 6, the English Fifth and Second armies and the French First Army repeatedly launched offensives. Achieving minor successes, they suffered enormous losses. On July 12, 1917, the Germans used mustard gas, which is also known as yperite, for the first time.

REFERENCE

Deyne, V. de. Ypres …. Liège, 1925.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ypres

a town in W Belgium, in W Flanders province near the border with France: scene of many sieges and battles, esp in World War I, when it was completely destroyed. Pop.: 35 021 (2004 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The 14th Century Cloth Hall lay in ruins after artillery fire devastated Ypres but between 1933 and 1967, it was meticulously reconstructed to its prewar condition and now hosts the In Flanders Fields Museum, dedicated to the history of the First World War.
Back in Ypres, lighten the mood by trying one of the many coffee shops and restaurants.
And there are another 50,000 names carved into the Menin Gate, near central Ypres.
In recognition of the agonies its people had to bear, in 1920 Ypres was awarded the British Military Cross and the French Croix de Guerre.
Days into the attack, Ypres suffered the heaviest rain for 30 years.
McCrae enlisted within a month of the outbreak of the First World War and by the spring of 1915 was serving in the Canadian Army Medical Corps at a field dressing station near a position British soldiers had named Essex Farm, close to Ypres.
The pair will tour some of the same battlefields and cemeteries visited by those on the 1928 pilgrimage, before marching through Ypres to the Menin Gate on August 8.
The championship travelled to Belgium for the Renties Ypres Rally at the weekend.
The poignant event culminates in a parade and ceremony in Ypres as part of the end of the First World War centenary commemorations this August.
In and around Ypres, where we've been spending a few days, around 300,000 Commonwealth soldiers died and, of those, 90,000 have no grave.
Centenary of the 1918 Armistice Visit some of the most poignant and important sites of the Somme and Ypres Salient.
Remains were discovered in a shallow grave near Ypres in 2014, sparking a painstaking DNA investigation to discover who the unnamed soldier was.