Ypres


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Ypres

(ē`prə), Du. Ieper, commune (1991 pop. 35,235), West Flanders prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. It is an agricultural market and an industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, textile-making machinery, and processed food. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was one of the most powerful towns of Flanders, with a flourishing cloth industry that rivaled those of GhentGhent
, Du. Gent, Fr. Gand, city (1991 pop. 230,246), capital of East Flanders prov., W Belgium, at the confluence of the Scheldt and Leie rivers. Connected with the North Sea by the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal and by a network of other canals, Ghent is a major port and
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 and BrugesBruges
or Brugge
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
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. However, political and social unrest and foreign wars led to the decline of this industry. A center of resistance to Spanish rule, the town was taken (1584) and sacked by Alessandro FarneseFarnese, Alessandro
, 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he
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. It was held by France from 1678 to 1716 and from 1792 to 1814. In World War I, Ypres was the scene of three great battles (see Ypres, battles ofYpres, battles of,
three major engagements of World War I fought in and around the town of Ypres in SW Belgium. The first battle of Ypres (Oct.–Nov., 1914) was the last of the series of engagements referred to as "the race for the sea.
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). The town was completely destroyed during the war and was later rebuilt. Among the city's restored buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of St. Martin and the magnificent cloth-workers hall (both originally built in the 13th cent.). On the ramparts of the fortifications built (late 17th cent.) by Vauban is a British memorial gate designed by Reginald Blomfield. Outside the town's walls are some 40 military cemeteries.

Ypres

 

(Flemish, leper), a city in northwestern Belgium, in the province of West Flanders. Population, 18,500 (1967). It is the site of textile and food industries. Machines used in the production of textiles are also manufactured. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1109. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Ypres competed with Bruges and Ghent as the center of the production of cloth by guilds. Later the city went into a decline. Architectural landmarks in Ypres include the Cathedral of St. Martin (13th-15th centuries) and Cloth Hall (1200–1304), a masterpiece of secular Gothic architecture. Other monuments of medieval Lowlands architecture have also been preserved.

During World War I (1914–18) in the vicinity of Ypres, the German Fourth Army launched a counterattack against the Ypres salient (April 1915) and forestalled an offensive being prepared by the Anglo-French forces. The Germans occupied most of the salient. On April 22, the first day of fighting, the Germans used a weapon of chemical warfare (chlorine gas) and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. This was the first use of chemical warfare in the history of war. In 1917, from July 7 to November 6, the English Fifth and Second armies and the French First Army repeatedly launched offensives. Achieving minor successes, they suffered enormous losses. On July 12, 1917, the Germans used mustard gas, which is also known as yperite, for the first time.

REFERENCE

Deyne, V. de. Ypres …. Liège, 1925.

Ypres

a town in W Belgium, in W Flanders province near the border with France: scene of many sieges and battles, esp in World War I, when it was completely destroyed. Pop.: 35 021 (2004 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
In recognition of the agonies its people had to bear, in 1920 Ypres was awarded the British Military Cross and the French Croix de Guerre.
The last post ceremony at Menin Gate, Ypres, Belgium, above, a recreated First World War trench at the Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917, below, and an exhibit from the In Flanders Museum, Ypres, below right
POIGNANT: Callum McGee lays a wooden cross at the grave of Sergeant John Appleton at Ypres while the other Ian Ramsey pupils look on, above; IMPORTANT TRIP: Talitha Devey, Callum McGee, Gareth Lang and Pamela Kelly, remember their exchange programme visit to Ypres Picture by IAN McINTYRE; RESEARCH: Historian Billy McGee found out about Sergeant Appleton
The memorial straddles the main road out of Ypres along which tens of thousands marched to the front line, many of them never to return.
More than 200 people from Wales also attended the nightly memorial service at the Menin Gate in Ypres on Saturday.
Louise Dorr, from the Ministry of Defence's joint casualty and compassionate centre, said: "Pte Edmundson was one of only eight Durham Light Infantry soldiers still missing from the Second Battle of Ypres, which is why it has been possible to identify him by means of DNA.
TRANSL888 it: Viewers will join an emotional trip to the town of Ypres in Belgium in this week's episode of Ar y Bysus on S4C.
You will go to locations throughout the Salient, which will help you to understand the four stages of the Second Battle of Ypres and the eight major phases of the Third Battle of Ypres where British, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian divisions all fought at different times.
Britain's Prime Minister Theresa May greets Prince William and Catherine the Duchess of Cambridge as she arrives at Tyne Cot cemetery for commemorations for the 100th anniversary of the battle of Passchendaele near Ypres in Belgium, yesterday.
Half-a-million Allied and German soldiers were dead, wounded or missing after the three-month campaign, which began on July 31, 1917, and is also known as the Third Battle of Ypres.
The attacks were fought near Ypres, Belgium, from July 31 to November 10, 1917, in muddy battlefields summed up in poet Siegfried Sassoon's line: "I died in hell, they called it Passchendaele.