Ypres

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Ypres

(ē`prə), Du. Ieper, commune (1991 pop. 35,235), West Flanders prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. It is an agricultural market and an industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, textile-making machinery, and processed food. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was one of the most powerful towns of Flanders, with a flourishing cloth industry that rivaled those of GhentGhent
, Du. Gent, Fr. Gand, city (1991 pop. 230,246), capital of East Flanders prov., W Belgium, at the confluence of the Scheldt and Leie rivers. Connected with the North Sea by the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal and by a network of other canals, Ghent is a major port and
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 and BrugesBruges
or Brugge
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
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. However, political and social unrest and foreign wars led to the decline of this industry. A center of resistance to Spanish rule, the town was taken (1584) and sacked by Alessandro FarneseFarnese, Alessandro
, 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he
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. It was held by France from 1678 to 1716 and from 1792 to 1814. In World War I, Ypres was the scene of three great battles (see Ypres, battles ofYpres, battles of,
three major engagements of World War I fought in and around the town of Ypres in SW Belgium. The first battle of Ypres (Oct.–Nov., 1914) was the last of the series of engagements referred to as "the race for the sea.
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). The town was completely destroyed during the war and was later rebuilt. Among the city's restored buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of St. Martin and the magnificent cloth-workers hall (both originally built in the 13th cent.). On the ramparts of the fortifications built (late 17th cent.) by Vauban is a British memorial gate designed by Reginald Blomfield. Outside the town's walls are some 40 military cemeteries.

Ypres

 

(Flemish, leper), a city in northwestern Belgium, in the province of West Flanders. Population, 18,500 (1967). It is the site of textile and food industries. Machines used in the production of textiles are also manufactured. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1109. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Ypres competed with Bruges and Ghent as the center of the production of cloth by guilds. Later the city went into a decline. Architectural landmarks in Ypres include the Cathedral of St. Martin (13th-15th centuries) and Cloth Hall (1200–1304), a masterpiece of secular Gothic architecture. Other monuments of medieval Lowlands architecture have also been preserved.

During World War I (1914–18) in the vicinity of Ypres, the German Fourth Army launched a counterattack against the Ypres salient (April 1915) and forestalled an offensive being prepared by the Anglo-French forces. The Germans occupied most of the salient. On April 22, the first day of fighting, the Germans used a weapon of chemical warfare (chlorine gas) and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. This was the first use of chemical warfare in the history of war. In 1917, from July 7 to November 6, the English Fifth and Second armies and the French First Army repeatedly launched offensives. Achieving minor successes, they suffered enormous losses. On July 12, 1917, the Germans used mustard gas, which is also known as yperite, for the first time.

REFERENCE

Deyne, V. de. Ypres …. Liège, 1925.

Ypres

a town in W Belgium, in W Flanders province near the border with France: scene of many sieges and battles, esp in World War I, when it was completely destroyed. Pop.: 35 021 (2004 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
A 94.7-mile flat ride in the rain from Ypres, Belgium to Arenberg-Porte du Hainaut, with seven sections of cobblestone roads totaling nearly nine miles
A wreath was laid in their memory by Martin Mansergh TD at the Menin Gate, Ypres, Belgium.
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But when the Queen arrived at the Menin Gate, in Ypres, Belgium, last night three UK veterans stood proud as the British and Canadian national anthems were played.
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Then, during a German attack on the Cheshire Regiment's base near Ypres, Belgium, on October 27, 1917, Pte Blease died from gunshot wounds.
A series of tours to World War One trenches, battlefields and cemeteries, starting tomorrow, will culminate in a two-mile march to the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres, Belgium, on Wednesday, featuring 1,100 standard bearers and 1,100 wreath layers.
Living History actors recreate the Passchendaele Battlefield Experience at Ypres, Belgium
William spoke at the Menin Gate monument in Ypres, Belgium, as the daily Last Post was played ahead of today's centenary of the start of the bloody First World War British assault.
Andrew Matthews <B A projection on the side of the Cloth Hall in the Market Square in Ypres, Belgium, during a dress rehearsal ahead of the commemorations to mark 100 years since the start of the Battle of Passchendaele
The attacks were fought near Ypres, Belgium, from July 31 to November 10, 1917, in muddy battlefields summed up in poet Siegfried Sassoon's line: "I died in hell, they called it Passchendaele."