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Yugoslavia(yo͞o'gōslä`vēə), Serbo-Croatian Jugoslavija, former country of SE Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula. BelgradeBelgrade
, Serbian Beograd, city (1991 est. pop. 1,168,454), capital of Serbia, and of the former nation of Yugoslavia and its short-lived successor, Serbia and Montenegro, at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers.
..... Click the link for more information. was the capital and by far the largest city. Yugoslavs (i.e., South Slavs) consisted of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, Montenegrins, and Bosniaks (also known Bosnian Muslims). Closely related linguistically, these peoples are separated by historical and cultural factors that ultimately led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia. The country also included Albanian (mainly in Serbia's former Kosovo prov.) and Hungarian minorities (mainly in Serbia's Vojvodina prov.).
Yugoslavia came into existence as a result of World War I. In 1914 only SerbiaSerbia
, Serbian Srbija , officially Republic of Serbia, republic (2015 est. pop. 8,851,000), 34,116 sq mi (88,361 sq km), W central Balkan Peninsula; formerly the chief constituent republic of Yugoslavia and of its short-lived successor, Serbia and Montenegro.
..... Click the link for more information. (which included present-day North MacedoniaNorth Macedonia
, Macedonian Severna Makedonija, officially Republic of North Macedonia, republic (2015 est. pop. 2,079,000), 9,930 sq mi (25,720 sq km), SE Europe.
..... Click the link for more information. and KosovoKosovo
, Albanian Kosova, Serbian Kosovo i Metohija and Kosmet, officially Republic of Kosovo, republic (2015 est. pop. 1,871,000), 4,126 sq mi (10,686 sq km), SE Europe, a former province of Serbia that unilaterally declared its independence in 2008.
..... Click the link for more information. ) and MontenegroMontenegro
, Serbo-Croatian Crna Gora, officially Republic of Montenegro, republic (2015 est. pop. 628,000), 5,332 sq mi (13,810 sq km), W Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Croatia in the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northwest, Serbia in northeast, Kosovo and
..... Click the link for more information. were independent states; CroatiaCroatia
, Croatian Hrvatska, officially Republic of Croatia, republic (2015 est. pop. 4,236,000), 21,824 sq mi (56,524 sq km), in the northwest corner of the Balkan Peninsula.
..... Click the link for more information. , SloveniaSlovenia
, Slovene Slovenija, officially Republic of Slovenia, republic (2015 est. pop. 2,075,000), 7,817 sq mi (20,246 sq km). It is bounded in the north by Austria, in the northeast by Hungary, in the southeast by Croatia, and in the west by Italy.
..... Click the link for more information. , and Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina
, Serbo-Croatian Bosna i Hercegovina, country (2015 est. pop. 3,536,000), 19,741 sq mi (51,129 sq km), on the Balkan peninsula, S Europe. It is bounded by Croatia on the west and north, Serbia on the northeast, and Montenegro on the southeast.
..... Click the link for more information. belonged to the Austro-Hungarian MonarchyAustro-Hungarian Monarchy
or Dual Monarchy,
the Hapsburg empire from 1867 until its fall in 1918. The Nature of Austria-Hungary
The reorganization of Austria and Hungary was made possible by the Ausgleich
..... Click the link for more information. . (The earlier histories of Yugoslavia's six component republics are treated in more detail in their respective articles.)
A Sketch of Yugoslav History before World War I
Slavs settled (6th–7th cent.) in the Balkans and were Christianized in the 9th cent. Slovenia was under Frankish (8th cent.), Bavarian (9th cent.), and Austrian (14th cent.) rule until 1918. A Croatian kingdom existed from the 10th to 11th cent., when it was conquered by Hungary, and Croatia was subsequently under Hungarian rule until the end of World War I. Bosnia was independent from the 12th to 15th cent., when it fell under Turkish rule. In the late 19th cent. it passed to Austria-Hungary, and its formal annexation (1908) was one of the irritants that led to World War I.
The region of Macedonia was contested between the Byzantines, Bulgarians, and others until conquered by Serbia in 14th cent., and like Serbia it fell to the Turks (late 14th cent.). Serbia gained control over the region during the Balkan WarsBalkan Wars,
1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense.
..... Click the link for more information. . A Serbian kingdom emerged (13th cent.) and under Stephen DušanStephen Dušan or Dushan
, c.1308–1355, king (1331–46) and czar (1346–55) of Serbia, son of Stephen Uros III. He is also known as Stephen Uros IV.
..... Click the link for more information. (r. 1331–55) became the most powerful Balkan state. Defeat (1389) at Kosovo FieldKosovo Field
, Serbian Kosovo Polje [field of the black birds], WSW of Priština, Kosovo, site of a battle in which the Turks under Sultan Murad I defeated Serbia and its Bosnian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian, and other allies in 1389.
..... Click the link for more information. brought Serbia under Turkish domination from the 14th to 19th cent., with Serbia securely in Turkish hands by 1459.
At the time of the defeat at Kosovo Field what is now Montenegro was the virtually independent principality of Zeta in the Serbian empire. The mountainous principality continued to resist the Turks, but by 1499 most of it had been conquered; Venice held the port of Kotor, and the Montenegrin princes ruled their remnant stronghold from Cetinje. Montenegro's independence was recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1799, and in 1829 the Turks granted the Serbs autonomy under a hereditary prince. Montenegro and Serbia were recognized as independent by the European powers at the Congress of Berlin (1878). Serbia was proclaimed a kingdom in 1882, and it emerged from the Balkan Wars (1912–13) as a major Balkan power.
A movement for unification of the South Slavs (see also Pan-SlavismPan-Slavism,
theory and movement intended to promote the political or cultural unity of all Slavs. Advocated by various individuals from the 17th cent., it developed as an intellectual and cultural movement in the 19th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. ) was led by Serbia and was a major cause of World War I. When a Serbian nationalist assassinated (1914) Austrian Archduke Francis FerdinandFrancis Ferdinand,
1863–1914, Austrian archduke, heir apparent (after 1889) of his uncle, Emperor Francis Joseph. In 1900 he married a Czech, Sophie Chotek. She was made duchess of Hohenberg, but because she was of minor nobility their children were barred from succession.
..... Click the link for more information. in Bosnia, Austria declared war on Serbia, thus precipitating World War IWorld War I,
1914–18, also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen.
..... Click the link for more information. . Serbia and Montenegro were overrun by the Central Powers, but Serbian troops were evacuated to Allied-held Corfu, Greece, where representatives of the South Slavic peoples proclaimed (July, 1917) their proposed union under Serbian king Peter IPeter I,
1844–1921, king of Serbia (1903–18) and king of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (1918–21), son of Prince Alexander of Serbia (Alexander Karadjordjević).
..... Click the link for more information. . Montenegro's last monarch, Nicholas INicholas I,
1841–1921, prince (1860–1910) and king (1910–18) of Montenegro, successor of his uncle, Danilo II. In 1862, after a series of frontier incidents, Nicholas was forced into war with the Ottoman Empire.
..... Click the link for more information. , was deposed in 1918, and Montenegro was united with Serbia. In Dec., 1918, the "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes" was formally proclaimed.
Founding to World War II
The Paris Peace Conference (see Neuilly, Treaty ofNeuilly, Treaty of
, 1919, peace treaty concluded between the Allies and Bulgaria after World War I. It was signed at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Bulgaria ceded part of W Thrace to Greece and several border areas to Yugoslavia; S Dobruja was confirmed in Romanian possession.
..... Click the link for more information. ; Saint-Germain, Treaty ofSaint-Germain, Treaty of
, any of several treaties signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, France. 1 The Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1570 terminated the first phase of the French religious wars (see Religion, Wars of).
..... Click the link for more information. ; Trianon, Treaty ofTrianon, Treaty of,
1920, agreement following World War I in which the Allies disposed of Hungarian territories. The internal chaos in Hungary that followed the dissolution (1918) of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy delayed the signing of a peace treaty with the Allies of World War
..... Click the link for more information. ) recognized the new state and enlarged its territory at the expense of Austria and Hungary with Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia, and other territories. King AlexanderAlexander,
1888–1934, king of Yugoslavia (1921–34), son and successor of Peter I. Of the Karadjordjević family, he was educated in Russia and became crown prince of Serbia upon the renunciation (1909) of the succession by his brother George.
..... Click the link for more information. , who had been regent from 1918 for his invalid father, ascended the throne on Peter I's death (1921). In order to protect itself against Hungarian and Bulgarian demands for treaty revisions, Yugoslavia entered (1920, 1921) into alliances with Czechoslovakia and Romania, the three states forming the Little EntenteLittle Entente
, loose alliance formed in 1920–21 by Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Its specific purposes were the containment of Hungarian revisionism (of the terms of the World War I peace treaty) and the prevention of a restoration of the Hapsburgs.
..... Click the link for more information. in close cooperation with France. With its western neighbor, Italy, relations were strained from the first over the Fiume question (see RijekaRijeka
, city (2011 pop. 128,624), W Croatia, on the Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Quarnero. Croatia's largest seaport, the city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, paper milling, and engine building. The city's air port is on nearby Krk island.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Although this was settled in 1924 with Fiume given to Italy, Italian nationalists continued to entertain hopes of appropriating part or all of DalmatiaDalmatia
, Croatian Dalmacija, historic region of Croatia, extending along the Adriatic Sea, approximately from Rijeka (Fiume) to the Gulf of Kotor. Split is the provincial capital; other cities include Zadar (the historic capital), Šibenik, and Dubrovnik.
..... Click the link for more information. , which had been secretly promised to Italy in 1915 by the Allies in exchange for joining them in World War I. Yugoslav nationalists, on the other hand, claimed parts of Venezia GiuliaVenezia Giulia
, former region, 3,356 sq mi (8,692 sq km), NE Italy, on the Adriatic Sea. It was formed after World War I from part of the territories ceded by Austria to Italy in 1919, and included E Friuli, Trieste, Istria, and part of Carniola. Fiume was added in 1921.
..... Click the link for more information. on ethnic grounds, and relations remained tense.
Internal problems were still more acute. Late in 1920 the Serbian PašićPašić or Pashitch, Nikola
, 1845?–1926, Serbian statesman. After studying engineering, he became interested in politics and was elected (1878) to the Serbian parliament.
..... Click the link for more information. became premier and obtained enactment of the centralized constitution of 1921. The Croats, led by RadićRadić, Stjepan
, or Stefan Radich
, 1871–1928, Croatian politician. Of peasant origin, he early became active in politics and founded (1905) the Croatian Peasant party.
..... Click the link for more information. , demanded autonomy. In 1928 Radić was shot and killed in parliament. After the Croats had set up (1928) a separate parliament at Zagreb, King Alexander in 1929 proclaimed a dictatorship, dissolved the parliament, and changed the name of the kingdom to Yugoslavia (sometimes spelled Jugoslavia). The royal dictatorship officially ended in 1931, but the new parliamentary constitution provided for an electoral procedure that insured victory for the government party. Troubles with Croatian and Macedonian nationalists culminated (1934) in Alexander's assassination at Marseilles, France. His son, Peter IIPeter II,
1923–70, king of Yugoslavia (1934–45). He succeeded under the regency of his cousin, Prince Paul, when his father, King Alexander, was assassinated in Marseilles. In World War II, when Paul's government signed (Mar.
..... Click the link for more information. , succeeded under the regency of Alexander's cousin, Prince Paul. The Croatian problem had been eagerly exploited by Hungary and Italy, which encouraged particularist movements against the Serbian centralists.
Prince Paul's gradual rapprochement with the AxisAxis,
coalition of countries headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, 1936–45 (see World War II). The expression "Rome-Berlin axis" originated in Oct., 1936, with an accord reached by Hitler and Mussolini. The Axis was solidified by an Italo-German alliance in May, 1939.
..... Click the link for more information. powers thus had the paradoxical effect of leading to the restoration (1939) of a more democratic government and the establishment of Croatian autonomy. In Mar., 1941, Yugoslavia adhered to the Axis Tripartite Pact. Two days later a bloodless military coup ousted the regent. The new government proclaimed a policy of neutrality, but in Apr., 1941, German troops, assisted by Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Italian forces, invaded Yugoslavia. Striking swiftly, the Germans joined with the Italians in Albania; a week later organized resistance was over. A Croatian puppet state was proclaimed under the leadership of Ante Pavelić, chief of the Ustachi (a fascist Croatian separatist organization; see CroatiaCroatia
, Croatian Hrvatska, officially Republic of Croatia, republic (2015 est. pop. 4,236,000), 21,824 sq mi (56,524 sq km), in the northwest corner of the Balkan Peninsula.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Dalmatia, Montenegro, and Slovenia were divided among Italy, Hungary, and Germany; Serbian Macedonia was awarded to Bulgaria. Serbia was set up as a puppet state under German control. Atrocities were committed by the Axis occupation forces and by the Ustachi.
While Peter II established a government in exile in London, many Yugoslav troops continued to resist in their mountain strongholds. There were two main resistance groups: the chetniks under MihajlovićMihajlović, Mihailović, or Mikhailovich, Draža or Dragoljub
, 1893–1946, Yugoslav soldier.
..... Click the link for more information. and an army under the Communist TitoTito, Josip Broz
, 1892–1980, Yugoslav Communist leader, marshal of Yugoslavia. He was originally Josip Broz. Rise to Power
The son of a blacksmith in a Croatian village, Tito fought in Russia with the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I and was captured by
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1943 civil war broke out between the two factions, of which the second was more uncompromising in its opposition to the Axis. Tito was supported by the USSR, and he won the support of Great Britain as well. King Peter was forced to transfer the military command from Mihajlović to Tito. By late Oct., 1944, the Germans had been driven from Yugoslavia. The Soviet army entered Belgrade. Tito's council of national liberation was merged (Nov., 1944) with the royal government. In Mar., 1945, Tito became premier. Lacking real power, the non-Communist members of the government resigned and were arrested. In Nov., 1945, national elections—from which the opposition abstained—resulted in victory for the government. The constituent assembly proclaimed a federal people's republic.
Tito and Communist Rule
The constitution of 1946 gave wide autonomy to the six newly created republics, but actual power remained in the hands of Tito and the Communist party. The Allied peace treaty (1947) with Italy awarded Yugoslavia the eastern part of Venezia Giulia and set up TriesteTrieste
, Serbo-Croatian Trst, city (1991 pop. 231,100), capital of Friuli–Venezia Giulia and of Trieste prov., extreme NE Italy, on the Gulf of Trieste (at the head of the Adriatic Sea).
..... Click the link for more information. as a free territory; conflict with Italy over Trieste ended in a partition agreement (1954). Within Yugoslavia a vigorous program of socialization was inaugurated. Opposition was crushed or intimidated, and Mihajlović was executed. Close ties were maintained with the USSR and the CominformCominform
[acronym for Communist Information Bureau], information agency organized in 1947 and dissolved in 1956. Its members were the Communist parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia.
..... Click the link for more information. until 1948, when a breach between the Yugoslav and Soviet Communist parties occurred and Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform.
The Tito government began to pursue an independent course in foreign relations. Economic and military assistance was received from the West. In 1954, Yugoslavia concluded a military defense pact (independent of NATO) with Greece and Turkey. More cordial relations with the USSR were resumed in 1955, but new rifts occurred because of Soviet intervention in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). Domestically Yugoslavia's "national communism" or "Titoism" included the abandonment of agricultural collectivization (1953) and the centralization of administrative and economic controls. Important economic power was given to workers' councils, and the republics were subdivided into communes. In 1966, Aleksander Ranković, the vice president and Tito's long-time associate, was purged for having maintained a network of secret agents and for opposing reform. Friction with the Roman Catholic Church ended with an accord with the Vatican in 1966.
Yugoslavs under Tito possessed greater freedom than the inhabitants of any other Eastern European country. Intellectual freedom was still restricted, however, as the jailings and harassment of Milovan DjilasDjilas, Milovan
, 1911–95, Yugoslav political leader and writer, b. Montenegro. A Communist party member from 1932, he helped Josip Broz Tito organize volunteers to fight in the Spanish civil war.
..... Click the link for more information. and Mihaljo Mihaljov showed. In the early 1970s, agitation among the nationalities revived, particularly among the Croats, and controls over intellectual life were stiffened. The autonomy of the six republics and two autonomous provinces of Serbia slowly increased through the 1970s as the economy began to stagnate. With the death of Tito in 1980, an unwieldy collective leadership was established. The economic problems and ethnic divisions continued to deepen in the 1980s, and the foreign debt grew significantly.
The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
In 1987, Slobodan MiloševićMilošević, Slobodan
, 1941–2006, Yugoslav and Serbian political leader, president of Serbia (1989–97) and of Yugoslavia (1997–2000), b. Požarevac, Serbia.
..... Click the link for more information. , a Serbian nationalist, became the Serbian Communist party leader. To the alarm of the other republics Milošević and his supporters revived the vision of a "Greater Serbia," which would consist of Serbia proper, Vojvodina, Kosovo, the Serb-populated parts of Croatia, large sections of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and possibly Macedonia (now North Macedonia). In early 1989, Serbia rescinded Kosovo's autonomy and sent in troops to suppress the protests of Kosovo's largely Albanian population. Slovenia and Croatia elected non-Communist governments in early 1990 and, threatening secession, demanded greater autonomy. Serbia and Montenegro were the only republics to retain Communist leadership; Milošević was elected president of Serbia in 1989.
After attempts by Serbia to impose its authority on the rest of the country, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence on June 25, 1991. Fighting immediately broke out as the federal army (controlled largely by Serbs) moved into Slovenia. A fragile peace was negotiated by a European Community (EC) delegation, but fighting soon resumed. By the end of July, 1991, however, all federal forces had left Slovenia, although fighting continued throughout the summer between Croatian forces and the federally backed Serbs from Serb areas of Croatia. In Sept., 1991, Macedonia declared its independence, and the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina voted for independence that October.
In Jan., 1992, with Serbs holding 30% of Croatia, a cease-fire was negotiated in that republic, and the United Nations sent in a peacekeeping force. In that same month the EC recognized Croatia and Slovenia as independent states, and in April the EC and the United States recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina's sovereignty. The Serbs, with about 30% of the population, seized 65% of the latter republic's territory and proclaimed the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Croats, with about 20% of the population, seized about half the remainder of the land and proclaimed the Croatian Community of Herceg-Bosna. The poorly armed Muslims, who comprised more than 40% of the population, held the rest of the republic's territory, including the capital. In a campaign of "ethnic cleansing" carried out mostly by the Serbs, thousands of Muslims were killed, and many more fled Bosnia or were placed in Serb detention camps.
In May, 1992, the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro and called for an immediate cease-fire in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Macedonia was widely recognized the following year (though Greece withheld recognition and imposed an embargo until after an agreement was reached with Macedonia in 1995). Although Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Yugoslavian federation, the EC announced in June, 1992, that the new government could not claim the international rights and duties of the former Yugoslavia, because those rights and obligations had devolved onto the different republics. This opinion was affirmed by the United Nations in Sept., 1992.
The United Nations also imposed a naval blockade on Yugoslavia, which along with the sanctions resulted in severe economic hardship, including hyperinflation for a time. After Serbia reduced its support for the Bosnian Serbs, the United Nations eased sanctions against Yugoslavia. In late 1995 Yugoslavia (in the person of President Milošević of Serbia) participated in the talks in Dayton, Ohio, that led to a peace accord among Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia (Yugoslavia). Milošević became president of all Yugoslavia in 1997.
Tensions increased in Kosovo in 1997 and 1998, as a period of nonviolent civil disobedience against Serbian rule gave way to the rise of a guerrilla army. In Mar., 1999, following mounting repression of ethnic Albanians and the breakdown of negotiations between separatists and the Serbs, NATO began bombing military targets throughout Yugoslavia, and thousands of ethnic Albanians were forcibly deported from Kosovo by Yugoslav troops. In June, Milošević agreed to withdraw from Kosovo, and NATO peacekeepers entered the region. Demonstrations in the latter half of 1999 against Milošević failed to force his resignation. Meanwhile, Montenegro sought increased autonomy within the federation and began making moves toward that goal.
In July, 2000, the national constitution was amended to permit the president to hold office for two terms and to institute direct presidential elections; the changes were designed to permit Milošević to remain in power beyond a single term and reduce Montenegrin influence in the federal government. When elections were held in September, however, Milošević was defeated by Vojislav Koštunica, who was supported by a coalition of 18 opposition parties (Democratic Opposition of Serbia; DOS). The election commission initially refused to certify Koštunica as the outright victor, but Milošević conceded after a general strike was called, demonstrators took over the federal parliament building, and Russia recognized Koštunica.
A coalition consisting of the DOS and Montenegrin Socialists formed a national government, and in early Serbian elections (Dec., 2000) the DOS won control of the Serbian parliament. Koštunica replaced several top military officers—a move designed in part to placate Montenegro—but he initially refused to hand Milošević over to the international war crimes court in the Hague. In early 2001 Milošević and some of his associates in the former government were arrested on various charges. The former president was turned over to the war crimes tribunal by the Serbian government in June, prompting the Montenegrin Socialists to resign from the federal coalition. Relations between Koštunica and Serbian prime minister Zoran Djindjić became strained, with the former concerned more about preserving the federation with Montenegro and the latter about winning Western foreign aid and reforming the economy.
Serbia and Montenegro (2003–6)
By 2002 Montenegro's drive for greater autonomy had developed into a push for independence, and a referendum on the issue was planned. In Mar., 2002, however, Serbian and Montenegrin representatives, under pressure from the European Union and other nations opposed to immediate Montenegrin independence (fearing that it could lead to further disintegration and fighting), agreed on a restructured federal union, and a constitutional charter for a "state community" was adopted by the Serbian, Montenegrin, and federal parliaments by Feb., 2003. Following the federal parliament's approval of the charter, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was reconstituted as Serbia and Montenegro.
Most governmental power shifted to the two republics, as the union became a weak federal republic. Although the two republics shared a common foreign and defense policy, they had separate currencies and customs regulations, and after three years either republic could vote to leave the union. Svetozar Marović, of Montenegro, was elected president of the union in March, and was its only president.
Despite the increased autonomy accorded Montenegro, Montenegrin leaders generally avoided any moves that would be supportive of the union and continued to call for Montenegro's independence. In May, 2006, after three years had passed, Montenegrin voters approved independence in a referendum, and Montenegro declared its independence on June 3. The government of Serbia and Montenegro then dissolved itself and, on June 5, Serbia declared itself a sovereign state and the political heir to the union. Serbia's proclamation brought to an end the prolonged dissolution of Yugoslavia into the constituent republics that had been established by Tito following World War II.
For a personal account of Yugoslavia see R. West, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon (1941, repr. 1968). See also J. B. Hoptner, Yugoslavia in Crisis, 1934–1941 (1962); S. Clissold, ed., A Short History of Yugoslavia (1968); J. Alexander, Yugoslavia before the Roman Conquest (1972); W. R. Roberts, Tito, Mihailović and the Allies, 1941–1945 (1973); W. Zimmerman, Open Borders, Non-Alignment and the Political Evolution of Yugoslavia (1987); H. Lydall, Yugoslavia in Crisis (1989); M. Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia (3d rev. ed. 1996); D. Owen, Balkan Odyssey (1996); L. Silber and A. Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation (1996).
(Jugoslavia). Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, SFRY (Socijalisticka Federativna Republika Jugoslavija).
Yugoslavia is a socialist state in southern Europe, situated for the most part in the northwestern and central Balkan Peninsula, in the Danubian Basin. In the west it is washed by the Adriatic Sea. Area, 255,800 sq km. Population, 21.9 million (1977, estimate). The capital is Belgrade.
Yugoslavia is a federal republic comprising six socialist republics (see Table 1). In accordance with the existing constitution, promulgated on Feb. 21, 1974, all power in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) belongs to the working class, allied with all urban and rural working people. The League of Communists of Yugoslavia is the leading ideological and political force of the working class and all working people. The foundations of the country’s socioeconomic system are freely associated labor, social ownership of the means of production, and self-management by the working people. The constitution proclaims the fraternity and unity of Yugoslavia’s nations and nationalities and the equality of its citizens, regardless of nationality, race, language, creed, education, or social status. It specifies the rights, liberties, and duties of individuals and citizens, guarantees the sovereignty, equality, and national freedom of all the nations and nationalities living in the SFRY, and establishes the equality of the languages and writing systems of the country’s peoples and the free development of their cultures.
|Table 1. Administrative divisions of Yugoslavia|
|Socialist republics and provinces||Area (sq km)||Population (June 30, 1976)||Capital|
|Autonomous Provinceof Vojvodina ...............||21,506||1,989,000||Novi Sad|
|Autonomous Provinceof Kosovo ...............||10,887||1,429,000||Priština|
Under the SFRY constitution, the federation guarantees through its federal bodies the independence and territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, defends the country’s sovereignty in international relations, and ensures the system of socialist self-management in socioeconomic relations and the unified foundations of the political system. The federation regulates the basic relations that guarantee the unity of the Yugoslav market and monetary and credit system, maintains relations with other states, and ensures the country’s defense and the protection of the state’s security. Functions that the constitution does not delegate to the federation come under the jurisdiction of the socialist republics and the socialist autonomous provinces. Each constituent socialist republic and socialist autonomous province has its own constitution, legislation, and higher governing bodies, as well as its representatives in all the main federal organs.
The organ of social self-management and the highest organ of power is the SFRY Assembly (Skupstina), which adopts resolutions amending the country’s constitution, lays down the principles of the country’s domestic and foreign policy, adopts federal laws, and forms the federation’s other higher bodies. The Assembly, whose members are elected for four-year terms, consists of two houses: the Federal Chamber, which has 220 delegates elected by the commune assemblies (30 from each republic and 20 from each autonomous province), and the Chamber of Republics and Provinces, which has 88 delegates (12 from each republican assembly and eight from each provincial assembly). Some of the Assembly’s powers are exercised by the two chambers acting jointly, for example, the election of the Assembly’s president and vice-presidents and of the president and members of the Federal Executive Council. Other powers are exercised by one of the chambers: the Federal Chamber, for example, adopts resolutions concerning amendments to the constitution, approves the federation’s budget, establishes the principles of organizing federal bodies, and decides on questions of war and peace; the Chamber of Republics and Provinces, acting in agreement with the republican and provincial assemblies, adopts Yugoslavia’s social plan and determines the overall expenditures of the federation’s budget.
The head of state is the president of Yugoslavia. In accordance with Article 333 of the constitution and in recognition of J. Broz Tito’s historical role, the SFRY Assembly in May 1974 elected him president of the republic for an unlimited term of office. The president represents the SFRY at home and abroad, heads the Presidium of the SFRY and the National Defense Council, and is the supreme commander in chief of Yugoslavia’s armed forces.
The Presidium of the SFRY is composed of one member from each republic and autonomous province and—ex officio-the chairman of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. The members of the Presidium are elected for terms of five years by the assemblies of the republics and the autonomous provinces. The Presidium represents the SFRY at home and abroad, considers questions of foreign and domestic policy, protects state security, ensures national defense, and directs and commands Yugoslavia’s armed forces in time of war and peace.
The government of the SFRY—the Federal Executive Council—includes the council president and members, elected by the SFRY Assembly for four-year terms, and federal secretaries and other heads of federal administrative bodies. The composition of the Federal Executive Council is regulated by the principle of equal representation of the republics and appropriate representation of the autonomous provinces. The council ensures that the policies set by the SFRY Assembly are implemented in all spheres of the country’s life, ratifies the draft of the social plan and the federation’s draft budget, and coordinates and directs the work of federal administrative bodies.
The organs of social self-management and the higher organs of power in the socialist republics, socialist autonomous provinces, and communes are tricameral assemblies that elect their own executive bodies (executive councils) and form various administrative bodies, such as secretariats and committees.
Yugoslavia’s judicial system includes the Federal Court, whose members are elected by the SFRY Assembly, republican and provincial supreme courts, regular courts, military courts, and self-management courts, including courts of associated labor and arbitration courts. The federal public prosecutor is appointed by the SFRY Assembly. Acting within the framework of the rights and duties of the federation in cases established by law, he may issue mandatory directives to the republican and provincial procurators. The Constitutional Court of Yugoslavia, whose judges are elected by the SFRY Assembly for eight-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws and other general acts to the SFRY constitution, settles disputes over rights and duties between the federation and the republics and autonomous provinces, and resolves conflicts arising from the jurisdiction of federal, republic, and provincial bodies. Constitutional courts have also been created in the socialist republics and socialist autonomous provinces. In accordance with the SFRY constitution special bodies have been established at all levels for the social protection of the working people’s right to self-management and social property. A federal social attorney of self-management is appointed and dismissed by the SFRY Assembly.
REFERENCESKonstitutsiia Sotsialisticheskoi Federativnoi Respubliki Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1975.
Sotsialisticheskaia Federativnaia Respublika Iugoslaviia. Moscow, 1975. Pages 18–46.
Nikolić, P. Obshchestvenno-politkheskaia sistema Iugoslavii. Belgrade, 1974.
Strasun, B. “Novaia konstitutsiia Iugoslavii.” Sovety deputatov trudiashchikhsia, 1974, no. 8, pp. 99–103.
Coastline. The coast of Yugoslavia was formed by subsidences of the mountainous western part of the Balkan Peninsula that resulted in the creation of numerous islands, peninsulas, and inlets—the distinguishing characteristic of the Dalmatian type of coast. Stretching for more than 2,000 km, the coast is fringed by the Dalmatian Islands, numbering more than 1,000 and covering a total area of 2,500 sq km. The largest islands are Krk, Brač, Cres, Hvar, Pag, and Korčula. The finest natural harbors are at Pula, Split, Šibenik, and Kotor.
Terrain. Low and medium-elevation mountains occupy more than two-thirds of the country. In the northwest rise the Eastern Alps, which include the Julian Alps with Mount Triglav (2,863 m), the highest peak in Yugoslavia. These rugged mountains have a karst topography in places and show traces of ancient glaciation. In the Dinaric Alps, a highland stretching across the country from northwest to southeast for a distance of 650 km, mountain ranges and massifs (among the highest of which are Durmitor, rising to 2,522 m, Diñara, and Velebit) alternate with longitudinal valleys and basins. The western part of the highland, composed chiefly of limestone, is the classic region of karst development with numerous polja (basins produced by the solution of limestone), caves, notably the famous Postojna Cavern, and disappearing rivers. (The term “karst” is derived from the Karst Plateau in northwestern Yugoslavia.) The eastern part of the Dinaric Alps consists of a series of forested high plateaus and mountain ranges with elevations of 1,500–2,000 m. The East Serbian Mountains, rising to 2,168 m in the eastern part of the country, are separated from the Dinaric Alps by the Morava Valley. In southern Yugoslavia lies the Rhodope-Macedonian Massif, composed of the Šar-Planina, Korab Mountains (to 2,764 m), and other ranges divided by the Kosovo Polje, Skopje, and Pelagonian basins.
Plains occupy about one-third of the country’s territory. They are found chiefly in the north and northeast, where the southern edge of the Central Danubian Plain, with elevations of 100–150 m, is broken by inselbergs rising to 984 m. Rolling plains also stretch along the Adriatic coast.
Geological structure and mineral resources. The central and western parts of Yugoslavia are occupied by the Dinarid folded system, composed chiefly of metamorphic Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks, ophiolites, and flysch (inner Dinarides), as well as Mesozoic and Cenozoic limestones, marls, and flysch (outer Dinarides). The eastern and southeastern parts of the country are occupied by the East Serbian zone of the Carpathian Balkanides and by the Rhodope-Macedonian Massif. The East Serbian zone of the Carpathian Balkanides is composed of Precambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic carbonate rocks, flysch, and effusive rocks. The Rhodope-Macedonian Massif has a Precambrian metamorphic basement, intruded by Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic magmatic rocks; Cenozoic molasse beds occur in the depressions. The northern part of the country coincides partly with the southern edge of the Alps (Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, Cenozoic mantle) and partly with the Great Hungarian Basin (Cenozoic molasse beds).
Hydrothermal deposits of several important minerals are associated with Alpine magmatism. They include the lead and zinc deposits at Trepča, Kopaonik, Novo-Brdo, Šuplja-Stena, Blagodat, Lece, and Srebrenica; the copper deposits at Bor, Majdanpek, and Veliki Krivelj; the antimony deposit at Zajača; and the molybdenum deposit at Mackatica. The mercury deposit at Idrija occurs in limestone. The Mediterranean bauxite province extends along the Adriatic coast. There are also deposits of chromites, iron and manganese ore, petroleum and natural gas, brown coal and lignite, tungsten and nickel ore, asbestos, graphite, phosphates, salt, and building materials.
Climate. With the exception of the Adriatic coast, whose climate is subtropical Mediterranean, Yugoslavia has a moderate continental climate. The Dinaric Alps obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Mediterranean Sea into the interior regions. In the north the Dinaric Alps form an amphitheater into which cold air masses from the north and northeast penetrate freely. As a result, winters are colder in the northern and northeastern regions than in most other European countries lying in the same latitudes. The mean January temperature ranges from 0° to − 3°C on the Central Danubian Plain and from – 1° to – 5°C in the mountains, dropping to –8°C at elevations of about 2,000 m. In the intramontane valleys temperatures may plunge to –30°C during frosts. Along the Adriatic coast winters are moderately warm with almost no freezing temperatures; January temperatures average 5°–9°C. Summers are warm and in places even hot, with July temperatures averaging 20°–22°C in the plains, 15°–19°C in the medium-elevation mountains, and 10°C at elevations of about 2,000 m. The mean July temperature on the Adriatic coast and on the islands is 22°–26°C.
There are two general patterns of precipitation distribution: the annual amount increases with elevation in the mountains and decreases as one moves from northwest to southeast. The Adriatic coast receives between 400 mm and 1,400 mm of precipitation annually. The seaward slopes of the Dinaric Alps receive 2,500–3,000 mm; in some years the precipitation reaches 5,000 mm near Kotor Bay, one of the most humid regions in Europe. The annual precipitation declines to 700–1,500 mm in the inter-montane valleys of the Dinaric Alps and to 500–800 mm on the Central Danubian Plain. In the coastal regions the maximum precipitation falls in the spring and autumn, and summers are dry. The distribution of precipitation is fairly even throughout the year in the interior mountain regions, and on the Central Danubian Plain the wettest seasons are spring and early summer. In winter the northern coast is often beaten by the descending gale wind known as the bora, and cold local winds are common in Vojvodina (košava) and Macedonia (vardarac). The warm sirocco blows on the coastal regions in the spring.
Rivers and lakes. Sixty-nine percent of the country’s territory is drained to the Black Sea, 21 percent to the Adriatic, and about 10 percent to the Aegean Sea. Certain karst regions have no surface drainage. The largest river is the Danube, part of whose middle course crosses Yugoslavia. The chief tributaries of the Danube are the Drava, Sava, Morava, and Tisa, whose lower course is in Yugoslavia. The largest of the rivers flowing into the Adriatic is the Neretva, and the most important river of the Aegean drainage basin is the Vardar, whose upper and middle courses are in Yugoslavia. The rivers have spring high water brought on by melting snow and occasional rain-caused summer floods. The Danube and its chief tributaries are navigable. Yugoslavia is rich in hydroelectric resources. The huge Iron Gate hydroelectric power plant has been built on the Danube. The water resources of the Neretva, Drina, and other rivers are also being harnessed.
The largest lakes—Skadar, Ohrid, and Prespa—are situated in intermontane depressions along the southern and southwestern borders. Karst lakes, sometimes forming series (Plitvice Lakes), are common in the Dinaric Alps. Glacial lakes, such as Lake Bled, occur in the spurs of the Alps.
Soils. Mountain brown forest soils, often gravelly or coarse skeletal soils podzolized to varying degrees, predominate in the mountains. Mountain meadow soils occur in the highest belt of the mountains. Large areas in the karst regions lack a soil cover. Chernozem-like smolnitz soils are found in places in the intermontane basins. Pockets of cinnamon-colored soils occur along the Adriatic coast. The chernozems and alluvial meadow soils of the Central Danubian Plain have been almost completely plowed up.
Flora. Most of the plains of Yugoslavia have been brought under cultivation; only small tracts of meadow steppes survive. Floodplain meadows and swamps occur in the river valleys. The low-mountain regions of the interior are covered with steppes to elevations of 700–800 m. The interior medium-elevation mountains are clothed with forests of oak, beech, hornbeam, and ash from 800–1,000 m to 1,600–1,800 m. At higher elevations, to 2,000 m, and on the wetter slopes these forests give way to coniferous forests of spruce and fir, above which are found meadows. The treeless karst regions support deciduous shrub formations (shibliak). Thickets of hard-leaved evergreen shrubs (maquis) and subtropical woodlands composed chiefly of holm oak, laurel, and myrtle grow along the Adriatic coast and on the islands. Tough grasses cover large areas along the coast.
Fauna. The plains are inhabited by voles, susliks, and hares and the mountains by deer, chamois, mountain goats, foxes, wild boars, lynx, marten, and wild forest cats. Bears have been acclimatized. Among the more common birds are woodpeckers, turtledoves, cuckoos, partridges, and thrushes; there are also numerous birds of prey, such as golden eagles and vultures, and many waterfowl, chiefly wild geese and ducks. Lizards and snakes are found on rocky slopes. The rivers and lakes contain carp, pike, perch, trout, and eel, and the coastal waters abound in sardines, mullets, anchovies, tuna, and mackerel.
Preserves. The largest national parks are Mavrovo, Durmitor, Prenj, Ohrid, and the Plitvice Lakes. The country has many preserves, sanctuaries and natural landmarks.
Natural regions. The Central Danubian Plain (southern margin) is a fertile cultivated lowland broken by wooded inselbergs. In the East Serbian Mountains and the Rhodope-Macedonian Massif medium-elevation mountains and plateaus, forested in places, alternate with large cultivated basins. The Dinaric Alps consist of medium-elevation mountains covered with forests and brush and plateaus with extensive karst development in the coastal zone. The Eastern Alps are a region of forested alpinetype mountains, the highest in the country, and relatively unforested plateaus; altitudinal zonality is clearly discernible in the sequence of landscapes. The terrain of the Adriatic coast and adjacent islands is one of hills and low mountains with widespread karst. The region has Mediterranean shrub vegetation and subtropical landscapes.
REFERENCESGratsianskii, A. N. Priroda Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1955.
Gratsianskii, A. N. Prioroda Sredizemnomor’ia. Moscow, 1971.
Blašković, V. Iugoslaviia segodnia: Priroda, liudi, khoziaistvo. Moscow, 1970. (Translated from Serbo-Croatian.)
A. N. GRATSIANSKII (physical geography) and E. G. MARTYNOV (geological structure and mineral resources)
Yugoslavia is a multinational country inhabited by 8.1 million Serbs (1971 census data here and below), who make up 39.7 percent of the entire population; 4.5 million Croats, constituting about 22 percent of the population; 1.7 million Slovenes; 1.7 million ethnic Muslims; 1.2 million Macedonians; and 500,000 Montenegrins. All these peoples essentially reside in their national republics, although a considerable number of Serbs and Croats also live in Bosnia and Hercegovina. The Serbs, Croats, Muslims, and Montenegrins speak dialects of Serbo-Croatian; the Slovenes and Macedonians have their own spoken and literary languages. With respect to religion, Serbian, Macedonian, and Montenegrin believers are Orthodox; the Croats and Slovenes are Roman Catholics; and Muslims are found chiefly among the inhabitants of Bosnia and Hercegovina. The population also includes 1.3 million Albanians (Kosovo), 480,000 Hungarians (Vojvodina), 130,000 Turks, 84,000 Slovaks, 78,000 Gypsies, 60,000 Rumanians, and other nationalities.
World War II took a heavy toll of the country’s population, direct losses alone running as high as 1.7 million persons. Since the war the population has grown rapidly, increasing from 15.8 million persons in 1948 to 21.9 million in 1977. Between the censuses of 1961 and 1971 population growth through natural increase averaged 200,000 persons a year. In 1977 the number of Yugoslav citizens working abroad exceeded 800,000 persons.
At the time of the 1971 census the country’s economically active population totaled 8,890,000 persons (43.3 percent of the total population), of whom 44.6 percent worked in agriculture, lumbering, or fishing and 27 percent in industry, construction, or crafts.
The average population density is 84 persons per sq km, rising to 100–200 persons per sq km in some industrial regions and in the fertile plains and dropping to 25–30 persons per sq km in the mountainous karst regions of the Dinaric Alps. According to official data urban dwellers constituted 39 percent of the population in 1971, compared to 13 percent before the war. Significant internal migration has led to the rapid growth of the larger cities. According to the 1971 census there were nine cities with populations exceeding 100,000, compared to only two in 1948: Belgrade, Zagreb, Skopje, Sarajevo, Ljubljana, Novi Sad, Split, Rijeka, and Niš.
Primitive communal and slaveholding system (to the seventh century A.D.). The oldest traces of human habitation on the territory of Yugoslavia date from the Paleolithic. Circa 1800 B.C. Illyrian and Thracian tribes migrated into the area. In the fourth century B.C. Celts settled the interior regions, and Greeks established colonies in the Adriatic, such as Issa on the island of Vis and Pharos on the island of Hvar.
From the third century B.C. to the first century A.D.,the territory of modern Yugoslavia was conquered by slaveholding Rome, which divided the area into several provinces, notably IIlyria, Pannonia, and Dalmatia. The Roman stronghold of Singidunum was located on the site of modern Belgrade. In A.D. 395 the territory was divided between the Western and the Eastern (Byzantine) empires. During the Great Migration of Peoples the area was invaded by the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Gepids, Huns, and Lombards, although the southwestern and southern regions remained under Byzantine domination.
Slavic settlement of the Balkan Peninsula; the rise and development of feudalism (seventh to early 16th centuries). In the sixth and seventh centuries Slavs, the ancestors of the present-day Yugoslav (South Slavic) peoples, settled in the Balkan Peninsula. During the seventh and part of the eighth centuries most of these Slavic tribes were either ruled by or allied with the Avars. The state of Carantania, formed in 658, became a vassal of Bavaria circa 745. A major alliance of local tribes was created in the Macedonian lands at the end of the seventh century. During the eighth and ninth centuries Christianity spread among the Yugoslav peoples.
In the ninth and first half of the tenth centuries early feudal Croatian and Serbian states emerged and grew stronger in the struggle against the Kingdom of Hungary, Venice, and the First Bulgarian Kingdom. At the beginning of the 11th century most of Yugoslavia was conquered by Byzantium. The struggle for state independence was led by the Principality of Dioclea (Duklja) in the 11th century and Rascia (Rašika) from the 12th century. (Dioclea was later renamed Zeta, and in the 15th century it was given its present name, Montenegro.) The political fragmentation of the Yugoslav lands and their internecine strife made it easy for the Kingdom of Hungary to conquer Slavonia in 1091 and Croatia and Dalmatia in 1102.
From the 12th to the 15th century large-scale feudal landholding was consolidated by the secular aristocracy and by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. The cities of Dubrovnik, Zagreb, Zadar, Belgrade, Ljubljana, Kotor, Bar, and Skopje became centers of handicrafts and trade. Intensified agricultural development, the colonization of uninhabited areas, and the expansion of cultivated land were accompanied by a growth of domestic trade and commercial ties with other European countries. German colonists flowed into the cities of Serbia and Bosnia and into the Slovene lands. With the formation of the principal groups of the feudal ruling class an estate-based system of representation was established by the secular and ecclesiastical aristocracy of Croatia, Bosnia, and Serbia.
At the end of the 12th century Byzantium lost its hegemony in the Balkans as a result of the strengthening of the Serbian state of Stefan Nemanja and the Bosnian principality headed by the ban Kulin. The Slovene lands, subjected to intensified germanization, developed within the Hapsburg Empire; Croatia and Dalmatia, as well as part of Bosnia, were incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, and Zeta and Serbia (in the 12th and 13th centuries) struggled for full independence from Byzantium. The early 14th century saw the independent development of Bosnia and Serbia’s southward expansion under the Nemanja Dynasty, culminating in its transformation in 1345 into a large kingdom under Stefan Dušan (which disintegrated in the late 1360’s). Part of the Yugoslav lands united under the aegis of the Bosnian Kotromanić Dynasty between 1353 and 1391, but by the mid-15th century Bosnia had effectively disintegrated into a number of feudal domains, among them the Principality of Hercegovina.
Political unity was not achieved in the Serbian lands from the late 14th to the mid-15th century despite a strengthening of the largest state—the Principality, or Serbian Despotate, of Lazar and Stefan Lazarević. Between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries part of Bosnia, as well as Belgrade and some areas of northern Serbia, fell under the domination of the Kingdom of Hungary; along with Istria, Venice acquired Dalmatia, Kotor, and Zeta. After the battle of Kosovo Polje in 1389, Turkish troops seized the Macedonian lands; Serbia was conquered in the 1450’s, Bosnia in 1463, Hercegovina in 1482, and the Zeta Principality, ruled by the Crnojević family, in 1496. Only the Dubrovnik Republic, which existed until 1808, retained its independence at the price of paying tribute to the Ottoman Turks. In 1521, Turkish troops occupied Belgrade. After the battle of Mohács in 1526 the Ottoman Empire seized other regions of Bosnia and Croatia.
Ottoman, Hapsburg, and Venetian rule (to the late 18th century). The extension of Ottoman domination over virtually all of Yugoslavia—excluding Slovenia and part of Croatia, ruled by the Hapsburgs, Dalmatia and Istria, held by Venice, and Dubrovnik—caused the Slavic population to migrate westward and northward beyond the Sava and Danube rivers into the southern regions of the former Kingdom of Hungary, the area now called Vojvodina. The conquered territory was ruled by a Muslim aristocracy and clergy, who embarked on the islamization of the Slavic population, first in the cities and then in the rural areas, especially in Bosnia, the former stronghold of Bogomilism. The 16th and 17th centuries were a time of economic decline in almost all the Yugoslav lands. In the Ottoman Empire intensified feudal exploitation provoked a number of anti-feudal and anti-Turkish uprisings, of which the largest were the insurrection led by J. Nenada in 1526–27 and the peasant rebellion in the Prilep region in 1564–65. Antifeudal movements engulfed the Croatian and Slovene possessions of the Hapsburgs, culminating in the Slovene peasant uprisings in 1478 and 1515 and the Matija Gubec Revolt in 1573. At the end of the 16th century anti-Turkish revolts flared up in the Banat, Serbia, and Montenegro.
The weakening of the Ottoman Empire and the Hapsburg’s acquisition of most of Slavonia and the southern regions of the former Kingdom of Hungary, (by a decision of the Karlowitz Congress of 1698–99) and of northern Serbia (1718–39) stimulated another migration of the Serbian population to the area beyond the Sava and the Danube. The center of Serbian ecclesiastical and cultural life thus shifted to the territory of present-day Vojvodina.
The 18th century witnessed the rise of capitalist relations in Vojvodina, in the military border area, in the Croatian and Slovene lands, and to a lesser extent in Venetian Dalmatia. The Yugoslav peoples began to look toward Russia for support in the anti-Turkish struggle. After the defeat of Turkish troops in 1796, Montenegro achieved de facto independence; during the 1790’s the Serbian population of the Belgrade Pashalik won concessions from the Turkish authorities.
Development of capitalist relations and the national liberation movement (late 18th century to 1918). In the Hapsburg-ruled Yugoslav lands, economically lagging behind the Western and Central European nations, capitalism developed everywhere, albeit unevenly. An important role in liberating the Yugoslavs from Turkish oppression was played by the First Serbian Uprising (1804–13) in the Belgrade Pashalik. Nevertheless, Danubian Serbia, which had been liberated by insurgents led by Karageorge and supported by Russia (Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12), was reclaimed by Turkey in 1813. The Second Serbian Uprising (1815) under the leadership of Miloš Obrenović resulted in the creation of the Serbian Principality, whose autonomy under the sultan’s suzerainty was reinforced by the Russo-Turkish treaties of 1826 and 1829. Commodity-money relations began to revive in Serbia in the 1830’s. Meanwhile, a central government was taking shape in Montenegro, which the princebishop Danilo Petrović-Njegoš proclaimed a principality in 1852.
In Croatia the liberal gentry, the commercial bourgeoisie, and their allies among the intelligentsia became the moving force of the national Illyrian movement. But the unifying message of the Illyrian movement found a weak response among the Serbs and Slovenes; the aspirations of Serbia’s ruling circles were embodied in the foreign policy program drawn up by I. Garašanin in 1844. The development of national self-awareness among the Slovene people was facilitated by the creation in 1809 of the Illyrian Provinces.
In 1848–49 the national liberation movement, led by the national bourgeoisie and gentry, gained momentum in the Yugoslav lands of the Hapsburgs. Slovene liberals assembled in Vienna in April 1848 to draw up a unification program for the Slovene ethnic territories, called the United Slovenia Program. Meeting in Zagreb in March 1848, the Croats called for reunification with Dalmatia, the military border area, and other lands. At a Skupstina convened in May 1848 the Serbs demanded autonomy for Vojvodina and union with Croatia. The policies of the Hungarian gentry, who headed the Revolution of 1848–49 in Hungary, impelled the liberals in the empire’s Yugoslav lands to adopt an Austro-Slavic position and goaded the conservative forces in those areas into assisting the Hapsburgs, for example, the campaign of the ban of Croatia, J. Jelačić, against revolutionary Hungary and Vienna in September, October, and November 1848. However, the events of 1848–49 did strengthen the national ties between Serbia and Vojvodina and contacts among the South Slavic lands of Croatia, Vojvodina, Serbia, and Montenegro. The national self-awareness and political experience of the Yugoslav peoples was reinforced. The abolition of feudalism as a result of the Revolution of 1848–49 in the Hapsburg Empire promoted the development of capitalist relations in the Yugoslav lands.
The 1850’s saw the rapid deterioration of the peasantry’s condition in the Yugoslav lands of the Ottoman Empire, itself in the throes of an internal crisis. Popular uprisings broke out in Hercegovina in 1852–53, 1857–58, and 1861–62, and a peasant rebellion shook northern Bosnia in 1857. The uprisings largely coincided with the Montenegrin-Turkish wars of 1851–52, 1858, and 1862. During the 1860’s the liberation struggle gained new vigor in the Yugoslav lands of the Hapsburg Empire.
The third quarter of the century was marked by a steady consolidation of the Serbian, Croatian, and Slovene nations. Among the Serbs the trend was manifested in the activity of the Omladina (1866–72) and in the liberal democratic movement in Vojvodina headed by S. Miletić. The concept of a Greater Serbia had a large following in the Serbian bourgeois milieu. The leaders of the Croatian liberal pro-Yugoslav faction that emerged in 1860 (J. Strossmayer, F. Rački) wavered between Austro-Slavism and the struggle for an independent Yugoslav state. As a counterweight to the notion of Greater Serbia, a Greater Croatia ideologoy ‘was developed in the 1860’s by A. Starčević and other Pravaši (seePRAVAšI). During the second half of the 1860’s the Slovene liberals again advanced the slogan of a United Slovenia within the Hapsburg Empire, and they supported the plans for uniting the South Slavs that were put forward by A. Tomšić and others.
The Serbian and Croatian national movements called on the Serbian government to pursue a vigorous policy in the Balkans, to declare war on the Ottoman Empire, and to adopt a pro-Russian foreign policy. The leaders of the national movements endorsed the principle of national sovereignty. The leading exponent of revolutionary-democratic and socialist ideas in Serbia between 1870 and 1875 was S. Marković.
An uprising in Bosnia and Hercegovina against Turkish oppression precipitated the Eastern Crisis of 1875–78. In June 1876, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey (seeSERBO-MONTENEGRIN-TURKISH WARS OF 1876–78). After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 the full independence of Serbia and Montenegro was confirmed at the Congress of Berlin (1878). In 1878 Bosnia and Hercegovina, as well as the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, were occupied by Austria-Hungary. With the support of Austria-Hungary, Prince Milan Obrenović (1868–89) proclaimed Serbia a kingdom and himself king in 1882. A commercial-industrial bourgeoisie and a proletariat emerged in Slovenia and Croatia in the late 19th century and somewhat later in Serbia, Bosnia, and Hercegovina. The last third of the 19th and the early 20th centuries saw the formation of the Serbian, Slovene, and Croatian nations and the gradual evolution of the other Yugoslav nations.
At the beginning of the 20th century Slovenia was industrially the most developed of the Yugoslav lands. In industrial production Serbia lagged behind both Slovenia and Croatia. Vojvodina, a region of large estates and medium-sized bourgeois farms, became the breadbasket of Austria-Hungary. Bosnia and Hercegovina remained a raw-material base for the empire’s industries. Austro-German and Hungarian big capital dominated the economy of the Yugoslav lands in the Hapsburg monarchy. The first workers’ organizations were founded in the late 19th century, and the first May Day demonstrations were held in Croatia and Slovenia in 1890 and in Serbia in 1893. The Social Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia was founded in 1894, the Slovene Yugoslav Social Democratic Party in 1896, the Social Democratic Party of Serbia in 1903, and the Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Hercegovina in 1909.
Led by G. Delchev, the left wing of the Internal Macedonia-Edirne Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), founded in 1893, struggled to rally all the ethnic groups in the historical region of Macedonia to the cause of political independence and social justice. Its members organized and headed the St. Eli’s Day Uprising of 1903.
The May 1903 coup d’etat in Serbia brought to power the Karageorgevich Dynasty and the Radical Party, founded in 1881 and led by N. Pašić. Its success in a customs war with Austria-Hungary (1906–10) facilitated Serbia’s industrial development and buttressed its authority in the Yugoslav lands. The Croatian-Serbian rapprochement was marked by the creation in 1905 of a bloc of bourgeois liberal parties known as the Croatian-Serbian Coalition.
In October 1908 the Hapsburg monarchy annexed Bosnia and Hercegovina, a move that precipitated the Bosnian Crisis of 1908–09. The growing rivalry of the European powers, especially Germany and Austria-Hungary, for control over the Balkan Peninsula hastened the creation of the Balkan League in 1912.
The Balkan Wars of 1912–13, whose progressive outcome was the liberation of Macedonia, Albania, and the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea from Turkish oppression, gave impetus to the national liberation movement among the Yugoslav peoples of Austria-Hungary. The assassination of Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by G. Princip, a member of the Young Bosnians, in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, gave the Haps-burgs a pretext for suppressing the liberation movement. On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, thereby initiating World War I. Austro-Hungarian forces, along with German and Bulgarian troops, occupied Serbia in the autumn of 1915 and Montenegro, Serbia’s ally, in January and February 1916.
Founded in London in May 1915, the Yugoslav Committee launched a campaign to separate the Yugoslav (South Slavic) lands from Austria-Hungary and to unite them with Serbia and Montenegro. On May 30, 1917, the Yugoslav deputies in the Austrian Reichsrat issued the May Declaration, calling for the creation of a unified Yugoslav state within the empire. The Serbian government’s negotiations with the Yugoslav Committee resulted in the signing of the Corfu Declaration (1917), which was accepted in August 1917 by the Montenegrin Committee of National Unification, founded in March.
Bourgeois-monarchist Yugoslavia (1918–41). Under the influence of the October Socialist Revolution in Russia the revolutionary and liberation movement of the Yugoslav peoples gained considerable strength in 1918. The general strike that crippled Austria-Hungary in February 1918 spread to the Yugoslav lands. Simultaneously, a mutiny broke out on the Austro-Hungarian naval ships in Kotor. Desertion from the Austro-Hungarian Army reached mass proportions, and the peasant movement intensified, as did the activity of the Social Democratic parties in the Yugoslav lands. The liberation of Serbia and Montenegro from Austro-Hungarian and German troops (on Nov. 1, 1918, Serbian troops liberated Belgrade) accelerated the political process. The unification of Serbia, Montenegro, and the Yugoslav areas of the fragmented Austro-Hungarian Empire into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, headed by the Karageorgevich Dynasty, was proclaimed in Belgrade on Dec. 1, 1918.
The revolutionary movement that unfolded in the country in 1919–20 impelled the authorities to decree an agrarian reform on Feb. 27, 1919. The country’s workers won such concessions as an eight-hour workday and a wage increase. The Unification Congress of the Socialist Workers’ Party of Yugoslavia (Communists) was held in Belgrade on Apr. 20–23, 1919; at its Second Congress in June 1920 the party was renamed the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY; seeLEAGUE OF COMMUNISTS OF YUGOSLAVIA). In the elections to the Assembly (Skupstina) on Nov. 28, 1920, the CPY (with more than 65,000 members) polled about 200,000 votes and won 59 seats out of 419, becoming the country’s third largest party. Fearing the further growth of the party’s influence, the government in December 1920 issued a counterrevolutionary decree known as the Obznana, which effectively outlawed the CPY. On Aug. 2, 1921, the Assembly adopted the State Protection Law, banning the CPY and divesting its deputies of their mandates.
On the question of government structure, many representatives of the Croatian and Slovenian bourgeoisie advocated federalism. As early as February 1919 the idea of a republic had been advanced by the Croatian Peasant Party, founded in 1904 and called the Croatian Republican Peasant Party from 1919 to 1925. Nevertheless, the dominant influence was wielded by a coalition of the Serbian Radical and Democratic parties, the latter founded in 1919. The Vidovdan Constitution, which the Assembly adopted in June 1921, confirmed the victory of the Greater Serbia circles. The ruling elite pursued a policy of oppressing the non-Serbian peoples of Bosnia and Hercegovina, Vardar Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Montenegro, together constituting more than half of the country’s population.
The foreign policy of the Yugoslav state was aimed at defending the system established by the Versailles Peace Treaty (1919) and by the treaties of St.-Germain (1919), Trianon (1920), and Neuilly (1919), which established the kingdom’s borders with Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria. The border problems with Rumania and Greece were resolved in 1919, and the boundary between Yugoslavia and Italy was set by the Rapallo Treaty in 1920. Bilateral treaties concluded between the kingdom, Rumania, and Czechoslovakia in 1920–21 created the military and political bloc known as the Little Entente. Throughout the interwar period the government of bourgeois-monarchist Yugoslavia maintained an intransigent anti-Soviet position.
From 1922 to 1928 the national struggle intensified. The movement for a restructuring of the state along federal lines was particularly strong in Croatia, where as early as the end of 1921 a coalition of all political parties was created under the leadership of the Croatian Republican Peasant Party. (In 1923 the CRPP emerged as the country’s second largest party after the Serbian Radicals.) However, the CRPP leaders showed a lack of consistency in entering into negotiations with the Greater Serbia circles. In 1925 the CRPP dropped its republican program and recognized the 1921 constitution, and from July 1925 to February 1927 its representatives joined the coalition government. At the end of 1927 the Peasant-Democratic Coalition was formed by the Independent Democratic Party (founded in 1924 and headed by S. Pribićević) and the Croatian Peasant Party. The ruling circles were prepared to deal harshly with the coalition and its leaders. On June 20, 1928, the Serbian nationalist P. Račić shot two Croatian deputies in the Assembly and mortally wounded S. Radić, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party. The coalition’s refusal to take decisive action enabled the reactionaries to suppress spontaneous outbreaks by workers.
Internal instability complicated the kingdom’s international position. After Italy’s annexation of the “free state” of Rijeka (Fiume) in 1923, relations between Italy and Yugoslavia deteriorated despite the conclusion of several bilateral agreements, notably the Nettuno Agreements (1925). After the fascist coup of June 9, 1923, in Bulgaria relations with that country also worsened. The kingdom strove for closer cooperation with the Little Entente countries and concluded a treaty of alliance with France in November 1927.
On Jan. 6, 1929, King Alexander staged a coup d’etat and established a military-monarchist dictatorship. The 1921 constitution was abrogated, and the Assembly was dissolved. The king appointed General P. Živković to head the government. Under the State Protection Law, enacted in January 1929, all political parties were banned. In October 1929 a law was promulgated renaming the country the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Communist Party, operating underground, strongly condemned the dictatorship.
The worldwide economic crisis of 1929–33 spread to Yugoslavia in 1931. From 1931 to 1933 about 300,000 persons were unemployed, and many peasants were ruined. The economic crisis fanned the revolutionary and national movements. In September 1931, King Alexander promulgated a “gift” constitution that essentially codified the reactionary order. In foreign policy Yugoslavia continued to orient itself toward France and the Little Entente. On Feb. 9, 1934, Yugoslavia joined Greece, Rumania, and Turkey in founding the Balkan Entente. On Oct. 9, 1934, King Alexander and the French foreign minister, L. Barthou, were assassinated in Marseille. The assassination was planned by the Ustasĕ (Ustashi), a Croatian fascist organization founded in 1929 by A. Pavelić, and by the fascist segment of the Internal Macedonia-Edirne Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) with the secret collaboration of the Nazis (Operation Teutonic Sword).
The prewar years were marked by economic revival and the development of such industries as metallurgy, machine building, and chemicals, linked to the construction of military enterprises. In foreign trade, Yugoslavia became increasingly dependent on Nazi Germany, which in 1939 accounted for 46 percent of its exports and 54 percent of its imports. Upon concluding an “eternal friendship” treaty with Bulgaria and a “neutrality” treaty with Italy in 1937, Yugoslavia effectively severed its alliance with France. In 1935–36 the strike struggle gained momentum. The influence of the Communist Party grew, largely owing to its adoption of a popular front strategy between 1935 and 1937. The new party leadership that emerged in late 1937 with J. Broz Tito at the helm succeeded in strengthening the party organization.
In October 1937 the Peasant-Democratic Coalition and the Serbian United Opposition, formed in 1935 by the Radical, Democratic, and Agriculturist parties, created a political coalition known as the Bloc of National Accord, which demanded the abrogation of the 1931 constitution, guarantees of civil and political liberties, the convocation of the Assembly, and the restructuring of the state along federal lines. After the Anschluss and the signing of the Munich Pact in 1938, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of maneuvering between Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, as well as between the fascist states and the Western powers. The December 1938 elections to the Assembly demonstrated the growing influence of the bourgeois opposition. The government, headed by D. Cvetković from February 1939, began talks with the Croatian Peasant Party (CPP) that ended with the signing on Aug. 26, 1939, of an agreement granting autonomy to Croatia. The agreement, actually a deal to divide power in the country between the Serbian and Croatian bourgeoisie, did not resolve the nationality question in the country and caused a split in the bourgeois opposition. Representatives of the Peasant-Democratic Coalition joined the Cvetković government in August 1939, and V. Maček, the leader of the CPP, became deputy prime minister.
At the outbreak of World War II, Yugoslavia declared its neutrality, while fascist groups, such as the Ljotić Zbor, the Ustaše, and part of the IMRO, became more active within the country. After France’s surrender to Nazi Germany, the Yugoslav government, fearing isolation, established diplomatic relations with the USSR in June 1940. Italy’s attack on Greece in October 1940 intensified the struggle between Great Britain and the Axis powers for influence in Yugoslavia. A trade agreement concluded with Nazi Germany in October 1940 increased Yugoslavia’s economic dependence on that country. Meanwhile, within Yugoslavia the Communist Party gained influence, and antifascist feeling ran high. In December 1940 the government banned the United Workers’ Trade Union (about 150,000 members), which was under the influence of the Communist Party. On Mar. 25, 1941, Cvetkovic signed a protocol in Vienna declaring Yugoslavia’s accession to the Berlin Pact. On the Communist Party’s initiative, mass demonstrations were held in many cities. The workers’ movement adopted the slogan “Better war than the pact!” On Mar. 27, 1941, a group of military conspirators linked with the bourgeois opposition and British Intelligence carried out a coup d’etat, bringing to power the government of General D. Simović. The Soviet Union gave moral support to the peoples of Yugoslavia. The two countries signed a friendship and nonaggression pact in Moscow on Apr. 5, 1941.
On Apr. 6, 1941, Nazi Germany and fascist Italy attacked Yugoslavia. Four days later the Nazis organized in Zagreb the “proclamation” of the Independent State of Croatia, having placed in power the Ustaše, headed by Pavelić. (On June 15 the state also joined the Berlin Pact.) The government and King Peter II fled the country, and an act of surrender of the Yugoslav Army was signed on April 17. Yugoslavia was divided into German and Italian occupation zones. Part of Vojvodina was ceded to Horthy’s Hungary, and almost all of Vardar Macedonia and part of the Serbian border regions were transferred to monarchist-fascist Bulgaria. The Communist Party, the sole organized political force, with 12,000 members in the summer of 1941, proceeded to make preparations for the Yugoslav peoples’ armed resistance to the occupation forces.
The National liberation War (1941–45) and the establishment of people’s democratic rule. The National Liberation War was closely bound up with the revolutionary struggle against the Yugoslav bourgeoisie, which had enmeshed itself in a policy of collaborationism. The war was a struggle for national and social liberation and for the creation of a new socialist Yugoslavia. The decision to begin a nationwide armed uprising was adopted by the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party on July 4, 1941. In July 1941 an armed struggle engulfed Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, spreading to Vardar Macedonia in October. The Communist Party initiated the creation of the United People’s Liberation Front in 1941. National liberation committees were set up in the areas liberated from the fascist occupation forces.
The beginning of a large-scale partisan struggle caused a regrouping among the Yugoslav bourgeoisie. Some members of the Serbian bourgeoisie rallied around the “Serbian government” headed by General M. Nedić, which the German occupation forces established in Belgrade in August 1941. Others gave their support to the royal government-in-exile. With the backing of the latter group, D. Mihajlović proceeded to organize armed detachments of Četniks (Chetniks). In the autumn of 1941 the Četniks began to collaborate with Nedić’s quisling units and the occupation forces and to fight the partisans.
The number of partisan detachments increased rapidly, and their fighting ability improved. On Dec. 22, 1941, the first regular combat unit was formed, the 1st Proletarian Brigade, which became the nucleus of the National Liberation Army, numbering 150,000 men by the end of 1942. The defense of the Kozara region in 1942 and the battles on the Neretva and Sutjeska in 1943 were milestones in the heroic struggle of the peoples of Yugoslavia. The liberation war was a integral part of the anti-Hitler coalition’s struggle against fascism. Tying down large fascist forces in the Balkans throughout the entire war, the National Liberation Army, encouraged by the Soviet Army’s decisive victories over Hitler’s Germany, steadily intensified its blows against the enemy.
On Nov. 26–27, 1942, the first session of the all-Yugoslav political body known as the Antifascist National Liberation Council of Yugoslavia was held in Bihać. At its second session, held on Nov. 29–30, 1943, in Jajce, the council declared itself the country’s supreme legislative and representative body; this event was an extremely important step in the struggle of the Yugoslav peoples to create a multinational socialist state. The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ), formed by the council as the provisional government of the new Yugoslavia and headed by J. Broz Tito, became the first higher executive organ of people’s power.
In a declaration issued on Dec. 14, 1943, the Soviet government hailed the resolutions of the council’s second session and the formation of the NKOJ, and it informed the council of its decision to send to Yugoslavia a Soviet military mission, which arrived there in February 1944. The Soviet Union rendered moral, political, and diplomatic support, as well as material and military aid, to the Yugoslav liberation movement. The military aid increased considerably in 1944, when the Soviet Army was approaching the Balkans. In the course of joint operations, Soviet troops and units of the National Liberation Army liberated a number of areas, including Belgrade on Oct. 20, 1944. At the Tehran Conference (1943) the USSR pressed for the adoption of the decision of the leading powers of the anti-Hitler coalition to render military and material aid to the National Liberation Army. The successes of the national liberation struggle in Yugoslavia and its consistent support by the Soviet Union compelled the ruling circles of Great Britain and the USA to refrain from their unqualified support of the Četniks and the royal government-in-exile. The Tito-Šubašić Agreements of 1944 obliged the royal government-in-exile to condemn the Četniks and provided for the establishment of a single Yugoslav government to replace the NKOJ and the royal government-in-exile.
The government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, headed by J. Broz Tito, was formed on Mar. 7, 1945, on the basis of the NKOJ. In the liberated regions of Yugoslavia all power was concentrated in the hands of the workers under the Communist Party’s leadership. The national liberation committees were converted into organs of people’s democratic power. The USSR and Yugoslavia signed a treaty of friendship, mutual assistance, and post-war cooperation on Apr. 11, 1945, and a trade agreement two days later. By May 15, 1945, the Yugoslav Army, renamed the National Liberation Army of Yugoslavia in March 1945 and numbering about 800,000 men, had completed the liberation of Yugoslavia from fascist troops and their accomplices. By their heroic struggle the peoples of Yugoslavia made a major contribution to the common cause of defeating fascism. The material damage sustained by Yugoslavia as a result of the war amounted to $46.9 billion.
Postwar Yugoslavia; restoration of the national economy; building socialism. As a result of the victorious outcome of the national liberation struggle and the socialist revolution, people’s power was firmly established in Yugoslavia. The democratic forces, united in the Communistled People’s Liberation Front, staunchly supported the Communist Party’s line, aimed at a radical social reorganization. The bourgeois-monarchist forces, relying on their representatives in the Yugoslav government and the assistance of the Western countries, sought to hinder the consolidation of the people’s democratic system in the country, hoping in particular to prevent the final abolition of the monarchy.
In August 1945 the First Congress of the People’s Liberation Front, thereafter called the People’s Front of Yugoslavia, adopted a statute and program that promoted the effectiveness of this nationwide political organization (with about 7 million members) based on the platform of the Communist Party. At the third session of the Antifascist National Liberation Council (Aug. 7–10, 1945) laws nationalizing mineral resources and establishing freedom of the press and assembly were ratified, and the council was renamed the Provisional National Assembly. In the elections to the Constituent Assembly, held on Nov. 11, 1945, the People’s Front received about 96 percent of the votes. On Nov. 29, 1945, the Constituent Assembly adopted a declaration providing for the final abolition of the monarchy, and it proclaimed the creation of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY).
The constitution of the FPRY, which went into effect on Jan. 31, 1946, confirmed the socioeconomic and political changes that had taken place in the country. The constitution guaranteed equal rights to the various peoples of Yugoslavia and to the constituent republics on the basis of a federal state system. Property ownership by the people as a whole was recognized as the leading principle. The constitution affirmed the principle underlying the agrarian reform law enacted in August 1945, namely, that “the land belongs to those who work it.” By abolishing large landlord estates and distributing land among the landless peasants, the reform dealt a blow to capitalist elements in the rural areas.
As early as March 1945 a virtual monopoly of foreign trade was introduced, and in August foreign concessions for mineral extraction were abolished. Foreign capital, which had controlled more than half of Yugoslavia’s industry, lost its grip on the country. In December 1946 a law was enacted nationalizing large industry, although the private sector in industry was not abolished completely until the adoption of a second law on nationalization in April 1948. With the nationalization of industry, the basic means of production became the property of all the people. The nationalization of transport, banks, and wholesale trade undermined the bourgeoisie’s economic base, resulting in the expropriation of the exploiter class. The state sector now occupied the key positions in the national economy, and the way was open for building socialism in Yugoslavia. The objectives of the first five-year plan (1947–61) were to eliminate the country’s technical and economic backwardness through socialist industrialization, to strengthen the country’s economic and defense capability, to consolidate and develop the socialist sector in the economy, and to raise the workers’ living standard.
As people’s rule became more firmly established in Yugoslavia, the Western powers put increasing pressure on the country, demanding in particular the withdrawal of units of the Yugoslav People’s Army from a number of regions in the Yugoslav lands that the army had liberated. The USSR spoke out on Yugoslavia’s behalf and supported it at the Paris Peace Conference in 1946. Under a peace treaty concluded with Italy in 1947 the disputed lands, with the exception of Trieste, were annexed by Yugoslavia; the Trieste question was eventually resolved by an ítalo-Yugoslav agreement in 1954. The USSR’s political support helped strengthen Yugoslavia’s security and independence. By 1948 the USSR and the other socialist countries accounted for 52.9 percent of Yugoslavia’s exports and 49.3 percent of its imports.
The Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (July 1948), which adopted a new statute and program for the party, set as the main goal the building of socialism.
The Second Plenum of the party Central Committee (January 1949) adopted a resolution to broaden the socialist sector in rural areas and to organize peasant labor cooperatives “at an accelerated pace.” From 1950 emphasis was placed on the development of general agricultural cooperatives, chiefly of the supply-sale type. After the March 1953 resolution to retain only profitable labor cooperatives, their number decreased from 6,806 in 1951 to 561 in 1956, while the percentage of arable land belonging to them dropped accordingly from 20 percent to 2 percent.
The priority given to the expansion of heavy industry ensured an upsurge in the national economy. However, the pace of economic growth was slowed by the lagging development of light industry and agriculture. In December 1950 the time period of the five-year plan was extended to the end of 1952.
In mid-1948 relations between the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and the CPSU and other Communist and workers’ parties were broken off. Subsequently, governmental, economic, and cultural ties between Yugoslavia and the USSR and other socialist countries were also severed.
From 1949 to 1953, Yugoslavia cultivated relations with the capitalist countries. Yugoslavia and the USA signed a military assistance agreement on Nov. 14, 1951, and an agreement on economic cooperation on Jan. 8, 1952. In 1951 the USA, Great Britain, and France concluded an agreement with Yugoslavia providing for “trilateral” aid. In February 1953, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation in Ankara, and in August 1954 they signed a treaty of alliance, political cooperation, and mutual assistance in Bled. These treaties provided for political, military, economic, and cultural cooperation between the three countries; this so-called Balkan Pact was dissolved in the second half of the 1950’s.
In 1950 a system of managing the national economy began to evolve whose distinguishing characteristic was the decentralization of management and the granting of considerable operational independence to enterprises under the conditions of a more active use of commodity-money relations in the economy. Enacted in June 1950, the Basic Law on the Management of State Economic Enterprises and Higher Economic Associations by Labor Collectives proclaimed that “enterprises as property owned by all the people are to be managed on behalf of society by labor collectives through elected workers’ councils within the parameters of the state economic plan and in accordance with the rights and obligations established by laws and decrees.” A law enacted on Dec. 29, 1951, limited general state planning to the establishment of basic proportions in the development of branches of the national economy through assessments of economic results for the preceding year.
A series of measures were adopted for the partial transfer of the powers of central state bodies to republican and local agen-’ cies. The main directions of this restructuring were contained in the Constitutional Law on the Foundations of the Country’s Social and Political Structure and on Federal Organs of Power (January 1953), the General Law on the Structure of Communes and Regions (June 1955), the Law on State Management, and the Law on Federal Management Organs (1956).
The changes that were introduced also affected the forms and methods of activity of the party and social organizations, as reflected in the resolutions of the Sixth Congress of the Communist Party (November 1952), which renamed the party the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY). The position taken by the congress that the “fundamental duty and role of Communists” is to conduct “political and ideological work aimed at educating the masses” in a number of instances manifested itself in practice in attempts to reduce the party’s role in building socialism.
At its Fourth Congress, held in February 1953, the People’s Front changed its name to the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia.
Calling on Communists to take a more active part in building socialism, the LCY Central Committee in its post-congress plenary sessions noted the danger of the antisocialist line of negating the role of the working class and of disorganizing and ideologically disarming the socialist forces. The Third Plenum of the LCY Central Committee (January 1954) criticized the liquidationist line taken by M. Djilas, which would have led to the party’s complete withdrawal from the building of socialism and essentially to the introduction of a multiparty system in the country.
By the mid-1950’s industrial production exceeded the prewar level by a factor of 2.5. Between 1947 and 1956 the annual industrial growth rate averaged about 13 percent; agriculture developed more slowly. The national income rose by more than 50 percent between 1947 and 1955.
As a result of the constructive efforts made by the CPSU Central Committee and the Soviet government and supported by the LCY and the Yugoslav government, relations between the two parties and countries were normalized in the mid-1950’s. High-level talks held in Belgrade in May and June 1955 and in Moscow in June 1956 culminated in the adoption of the Belgrade Declaration of the Governments of the USSR and Yugoslavia (June 2, 1955) and the Moscow Declaration On Relations Between the CPSU and the LCY (June 20, 1956). These declarations played an important role in the development of cooperation between the USSR and Yugoslavia and between the CPSU and the LCY. Relations were also normalized between Yugoslavia and other socialist countries, as well as between the LCY and other Communist and workers’ parties. In 1955–56, Soviet-Yugoslav agreements were concluded on economic, scientific and technical, and cultural cooperation, and since 1957 Soviet-Yugoslav trade has been conducted on the basis of long-term governmental agreements.
Despite the country’s achievements in building socialism, the dynamic growth of Yugoslavia’s economy was accompanied by difficulties. The weakening of centralized planning gave rise to parochial tendencies and unhealthy competition. There was some unemployment: in 1955–56 between 70,000 and 100,000 persons were not regularly employed. In October 1955 the Executive Committee of the LCY Central Committee acknowledged that the previous course of industrial development had been excessively intensive and had threatened the population’s standard of living. In a resolution the Central Committee pointed out that economic policy must ensure commensurate growth in the output of consumer goods and basic means of production through changes in the structure of capital investments. The Sixth Plenum of the Central Committee (March 1956) condemned technocratism and excessive practicality in implementing economic policy, and it denounced the conciliatory attitude toward parochialism and republican isolationism. The plenum set the task of strengthening the party’s role in all spheres of the country’s life.
In 1956–57 the National Assembly adopted a number of measures aimed at strengthening the role of the central, federal bodies in managing the national economy. In particular, banking controls were tightened over the economic activity of enterprises; maximum and fixed prices were set for various goods and raw materials; and the number of enterprises engaged in foreign trade was reduced. It was deemed expedient to return to the drafting of five-year plans (from 1953 to 1956 only one-year plans had been used). These measures had a favorable effect on the fulfillment of the second five-year plan (1957–61).
The forms and methods of party and state building that had evolved, as well as the main directions of the further development of the sociopolitical and economic system through self-management, were reflected in the resolutions of the Seventh Congress of the LCY (April 1958) and in the new party program that it adopted.
Yugoslavia’s new constitution, proclaimed in April 1963, reflected and legislatively confirmed the socialist gains made by the working people. The task of creating communist social relations was set as the ultimate goal. Yugoslavia’s official name was changed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). By 1965 industry accounted for about 50 percent of the national income. The industrial output exceeded the 1957 level by a factor of 2.8, the 1947 level by a factor of 6, and the prewar level by a factor of almost 7.5. The annual rate of growth averaged more than 12 percent in industry and more than 6 percent in agriculture. The per capita national income in 1965 was more than 2.5 times that of 1947.
The Eighth Congress of the LCY (December 1964) outlined the basic directions of a wide range of measures that came to be known as socioeconomic reforms. The measures were intended to eliminate the disproportions caused by the mining industry’s lag behind manufacturing and agriculture’s lag behind industrial production, to lessen the disparity between the development levels of individual republics and regions, to limit imports and stimulate exports, to involve the country more actively in the international division of labor, to reduce the balance of payments deficits, as well as foreign indebtedness, and to regulate capital investments more effectively. The purpose of the reforms was to create new conditions of economic management by strengthening the material base of self-management at all levels and by giving broader scope to commodity-money relations while strengthening the control functions of the credit and banking system.
Over a period of several years a constitutional reform was carried out: a number of amendments to the 1963 constitution extended the rights of the republics still more, particularly in the sphere of legislation, finance, and foreign trade.
The resolutions of the Ninth Congress of the LCY (March 1969) advanced the policy of decentralizing economic management and strengthening the operational independence of enterprises. In the new statute adopted at the congress the party was defined as the revolutionary, guiding, ideological-political force of the working class and all working people in their struggle for socialism. The creation of a classless communist society was proclaimed as the party’s ultimate goal and historical task.
By the end of the 1960’s the country’s economic development, while showing some definite positive results, was characterized by slower than planned rates of development in the economically backward republics and by complications in the sphere of employment, as a result of which an increasing number of Yugoslav citizens were going abroad in search of work. The balance-of-payments deficit remained, and price increases and inflationary phenomena were noted.
By the late 1960’s and early 1970’s the political situation in Yugoslavia had become noticeably more complex. In resolving the problems of building socialism the LCY clashed with nationalistic and anarcholiberal forces. The flare-up of nationalism in Croatia in the autumn of 1971, which had separatist manifestations, obliged the LCY leadership to take decisive measures against the forces threatening the unity and integrity of the SFRY.
Of great importance for normalizing the situation within the country and the LCY were the resolutions adopted by the 21st session of the Presidium of the LCY (December 1971). The Second Conference of the LCY (January 1972) approved an “action program” outlining measures aimed at strengthening the LCY ideologically, politically, and organizationally on the principles of democratic centralism and at heightening its leading role. An important role was played by the letter sent in September 1972 to all party organizations by the LCY’s president, J. Broz Tito, and the Executive Bureau of the LCY Presidium.
The new constitution adopted in February 1974 reflected the current phase of building socialism in Yugoslavia on the principles of self-management and reinforced the guiding position of the working class and the leading ideological and political role of the LCY in Yugoslav society. The constitution emphasized that the “working class and all working people are developing a socialist democracy, based on the principles of self-management, as a special form of the dictatorship of the proletariat.” The following are considered to be the principal directions in developing a system of self-management: (1) establishing more precisely the position, role, and responsibility of all the organizational forces of society, headed by the LCY, (2) introducing the delegate principle in forming people’s representative bodies, and (3) creating organizations of associated labor in the sphere of material production, as well as in the nonproduction branches of the national economy.
The Tenth Congress of the LCY (May 1974), noting the achievements of the peoples of Yugoslavia in building socialism, set as the highest priority the consolidation of the LCY’s leading ideological and political role as the vanguard of the working class and the organizational strengthening of the party on the principles of democratic centralism. The congress censured the so-called theories of the spontaneous and automatic development of self-management, the disparagement of the importance of the guiding activity of the party, the tendency toward federalization in the party, and factionalism. In its resolutions the congress stressed the class nature of the socialist state and the need to use it effectively as an “instrument in the hands of the working class to ensure its historical and immediate interests.” Specific tasks were outlined for solving the country’s urgent economic problems. The congress elected J. Broz Tito president of the LCY for an unlimited term.
On July 18, 1975, the SFRY Assembly ratified the Principles of the Joint Policy for the Long-term Development of the SFRY Until 1985, and on July 20, 1976, it approved a social plan of development for the period 1976–80. In November 1976, on the basis of provisions in the 1974 constitution, the Assembly enacted the Law on Associated Labor, regulating in particular the activity of the basic organizations of associated labor. These organizations are regarded in Yugoslavia as the primary units of the socioeconomic and sociopolitical system; together with the people’s representative bodies, formed on the delegate principle, they have been charged with broadening the possibilities for the working people’s direct participation in managing the national economy and society. The effectiveness of these institutions is considered in Yugoslavia to be directly dependent on strengthening the LCY’s leading role in society and on improving the forms and methods of the party’s activity.
The Eleventh Congress of the LCY was held June 20–23, 1978. Devoting much attention to the further development of the political system of socialist self-management, the Eleventh Congress, maintaining the continuity of the policy set by the Tenth Congress, ascribed primary importance to the question of reinforcing the LCY’s leading role. The congress summarized the path that the country had taken in the period of people’s rule and noted the successes achieved by the Yugoslav working people (see below: Economic geography). In considering the problems of economic development the congress recognized the urgency of stabilizing the economy, increasing labor productivity, equalizing the development levels of the country’s republics and regions, and ensuring full employment. The congress ratified the changes and supplements introduced into the LCY statute, including the resolution of the Tenth Congress regarding the election of J. Broz Tito as president of the LCY for an unlimited term of office.
The Eleventh Congress of the LCY reaffirmed Yugoslavia’s policy of peaceful coexistence and nonalignment as an integral part of the struggle for peace and socialism.
An active participant in the nonalignment movement, Yugoslavia has been one of the initiators of a series of conferences of the heads of state and government of the nonaligned countries, held in Belgrade in 1961, in Cairo in 1964, in Lusaka in 1970, in Algiers in 1973, in Colombo in 1976, and in Havana in 1979. A champion of peace and the security of nations, Yugoslavia advocates a maintaining of detente and its extension to all parts of the world and spheres of international relations, and it supports the adoption of practical measures aimed at stopping the arms race and achieving general and complete disarmament. Since 1969, Yugoslavia has participated in the work of the Geneva-based UN Committee on Disarmament. It is a party to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (1963), the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (1968), and the Seabed Treaty (1971).
Yugoslavia took part in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (July 3, 1973-Aug. 1, 1975), signing the Final Act in Helsinki on Aug. 1, 1975. In the spirit of Helsinki, Yugoslavia settled its border problem with Italy in 1975; in 1977–78, Belgrade was the site of a meeting of representatives of countries that had participated in the conference. Yugoslavia advocates the consistent and effective implementation of all the provisions of the Final Act fully and equally by all the signatories. It supports the proposals to create nuclear-free zones in Central Europe and in the Balkans, upholds the principle of the inviolability of the postwar borders in Europe, and advocates resolving international disputes by peaceful means. It supports national liberation movements, presses for full decolonization, and opposes racism and apartheid.
An important place in the policy of Yugoslavia’s government is given to its relations with the socialist countries. In September 1964, Yugoslavia began to take part in the work of certain agencies of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); by 1977 the share of the socialist countries in Yugoslavia’s total commodity turnover reached 33.2 percent. Yugoslavia has concluded agreements with COMECON’s International Investment Bank (1974) and its International Bank for Economic Cooperation (1977).
An important role in developing and strengthening the multi-faceted relations between the USSR and Yugoslavia, as well as between the CPSU and the LCY, has been played by L. I. Brezhnev’s visits to Yugoslavia (1962, 1966, 1971, and 1976) and those of J. Broz Tito to the USSR (1956, 1962, 1965, 1972, 1973, and 1977). The USSR is Yugoslavia’s principal trading partner, accounting for 17.5 percent of its foreign trade in 1977.
Active relations are developing between Yugoslavia and the capitalist countries, which in 1977 accounted for 51.5 percent of the SFRY’s commodity turnover. Yugoslavia attaches great importance to broadening its multifaceted cooperation with the developing countries, whose share of Yugoslavia’s commodity turnover amounted to 15.3 percent in 1977.
In 1977, Yugoslavia maintained diplomatic and consular relations with 116 countries.
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Šišlć, F. Jugoslavenski misao: Istorija ideje Jugoslavenskog narodnog ujedinjenja ioslobodjenja od 1790–1918. Belgrade, 1937.
Čulinović, F. Oktiabr’ i korni sotsialisticheskoi revoliutsii v Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1967. (Translated from Serbo-Croatian.)
Uchastie iugoslavskikh trudiashchikhsia v Oktiabr’skoi revoliutsü i grazhdanskoi voine v SSSR: Sb. dokumentov i materialov. Moscow, 1976.
Iugoslaviia vchera i segodnia, 1945–1965. Moscow, 1965.
Nikiforov, L. A., and Iu. P. Ostrovidov. Sotsialisticheskaia Federativnaia Respublika Iugoslaviia: Spravochnik. Moscow, 1975.
Girenko, Iu. S. Sovetskii Soiuz—Iugoslaviia: traditsionnaia druzhba, vsestoronnee sotrudnichestvo. Moscow, 1975.
Sotsialisticheskaia Federativnaia Respublika Iugoslaviia. Moscow, 1975.
See also references under BOSNIA, HERCEGOVINA, MACEDONIA, SERBIA, SLOVENIA, CROATIA, MONTENEGRO, NATIONAL LIBERATION WAR IN YUGOSLAVIA OF 1941–45, and LEAGUE OF COMMUNISTS OF YUGOSLAVIA.
League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY, Savez Komunista Jugoslavije). Founded in April 1919 as the Socialist Workers’ Party of Yugoslavia (Communists) and renamed the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in June 1920, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia acquired its present name in November 1952. At the beginning of 1978 it had more than 1.6 million members.
Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia (SAWPY, Socijalistički Savez Radnog Naroda Jugoslavije). The SAWPY is a mass sociopolitical organization that was created out of the People’s Liberation Front, formed during the National Liberation War and renamed the People’s Front of Yugoslavia in August 1945. Known as the SAWPY since 1953, the organization numbered 8.6 million members in 1977.
Trade unions and other social organizations. The Confederation of Trade Unions of Yugoslavia, founded in 1945, unites 15 branch trade unions and has a membership of about 4.5 million (1977). The Socialist Youth League of Yugoslavia, founded in 1974 through the merger of the Youth League of Yugoslavia (founded 1948), the League of Students, and a number of specialized youth organizations, had a membership of more than 3.5 million in 1977. The League of Associations of Veterans of the National Liberation War, founded in 1946, had about 1 million members in 1977. Another important organization is the Yugoslav League for Peace, Independence, and Equal Rights of Peoples, founded in 1949.
IU. S. GIRENKO
General characteristics. In the years of socialist construction fundamental socioeconomic transformations have taken place in Yugoslavia, which has evolved from an agrarian into an industrial-agrarian country.
In 1977 the socialist sector accounted for 84 percent of the gross social product and the private sector for 16 percent. Between 1974 and 1977 social production grew at an average annual rate of 5.8 percent, including 7.4 percent in industry, 3.1 percent in agriculture, 7.9 percent in construction, and 6.2 percent in transportation. The country’s gross social product increased six times and its industrial output about 15 times between 1947 and 1977. The number of persons employed in the national economy rose by a factor of 4.4 in this period.
|Table 2. Structure of gross social product (percent)|
|Industry (including crafts) ...............||21.0||28.6||33.6||36.5||36.5|
|Forest products ...............||2.6||1.9||1.2||1.0||1.0|
|Transportation and communications ...............||5.9||7.6||8.1||8.3||8.2|
|Trade and services ...............||15.3||18.2||21.9||21.7||21.3|
|Other sectors ...............||7.0||5.9||5.8||6.3||6.2|
The social sector employed 5.16 million persons in 1977. The growth of employment was especially rapid in the service sphere and trade, averaging 6.5 percent from 1971 to 1975, compared to 5 percent in industry. Although the work force in the social sector grew by more than 700,000 between 1972 and 1977, the problem of unemployment has not yet been fully resolved.
The country’s economy expanded rapidly from 1974 to 1977, the period between the Tenth and Eleventh Congresses of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Investment in fixed capital stock increased at an average annual rate of 7.4 percent, and the volume of exports rose by 2.8 percent annually and of imports by 6.4 percent. During this time labor productivity increased 3 percent, and employment in the socialist sector rose 4 percent. Stable growth in agricultural production was achieved. The problem of expanding the social sector in agriculture was being solved by enlarging the agroindustrial complexes. Nevertheless in its review of problems of national economic development, the Eleventh Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1978) pointed to the need to stabilize the economy, raise labor productivity, and equalize the levels of development of the country’s various republics and regions.
From 1947 to 1956 economic development was based on the expansion of heavy industry, which was allocated as much as 57 percent of all industrial capital investments. Since 1957, appropriations for heavy industry have decreased somewhat, and financing has been augmented for agriculture, the food and light industries, and the nonproduction spheres, whose share of total investments rose from 27.3 percent in 1950 to 36.7 percent in 1970. Capital investments in electric power production, certain raw material sectors, and export sectors of manufacturing (non-ferrous metallurgy, electrical engineering, shipbuilding) were increased in the 1960’s to eliminate the disproportions that had developed in the economy, in particular between the mining and manufacturing sectors.
In conformity with the five-year economic plan for 1971–75, about 51 percent of all capital investment in the production sphere of the social sector was channeled into industry. Steps were taken to ensure a rise in labor productivity, whose growth during the five-year plan averaged 2.4 percent a year, and a fuller use of production capacities, whose technical-economic potential was considerable (72 percent of the industrial equipment was less than ten years old). In 1974 a program was adopted to combat inflation through strengthening financial discipline at enterprises, controlling capital development, and improving the foreign trade balance. A reserve fund to assist unprofitable enterprises was created in each republic. The social plan for 1976–80 aimed at speeding up the structural reorganization of the economy to achieve dynamic development and to stimulate exports in manufacturing.
Yugoslavia has had to contend with the disparities in economic development that have traditionally prevailed among various parts of the country. Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia are the country’s economically developed regions. Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, and the autonomous province of Kosovo in Serbia are economically less developed regions, and a special fund has been set up to provide loans for their development. Between 1974 and 1976 social production increased at an annual average rate (in constant prices) of 4.6 percent in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 5.1 percent in Montenegro, 5.2 percent in Macedonia, 5.3 percent in Croatia, 5.7 percent in Slovenia, and 5.4 percent in Serbia, excluding the autonomous provinces of Kosovo (7.8 percent) and Vojvodina (5.4 percent). The uneven distribution of industry is gradually being overcome through national industrialization. New industrial centers have emerged in Bosnia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and the autonomous Kosovo province on the basis of local natural and labor resources, and the old industrial regions of Slovenia, western Croatia, and northern Serbia are expanding.
Industry. Between 1939 and 1977 the number of persons employed in industry increased more than sixfold, from 300,000 to 1,950,000. In that period industrial production grew almost 15 times. Industrialization has been accompanied by a change in the scale, structure, and technology of production. Heavy industry, in particular machine building, has expanded considerably. Means of production accounted for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output in 1975, compared to 43 percent in 1939. Production of machinery and equipment rose 59 times between 1939 and 1975; raw and processed materials, 13 times; and consumer goods, 15 times. More than half of the country’s industrial employees work in plants and factories with more than 1,000 workers.
|Table 3. Structure of industry (1975)|
|Workers (annual average)||Value of social product|
|Fuel and energy ...............||129,600||7.0||25.1||13.5|
|Ferrous metallurgy ...............||54,800||2.9||7.7||4.1|
|Nonferrous metallurgy ...............||49,400||2.7||6.8||3.7|
|Machine building and metalworking||498,900||26.7||44.1||23.7|
|Chemicals and rubber ...............||123,600||6.6||15.9||8.6|
|Building materials and nonore minerals ...............||136,800||7.3||12.3||6.6|
|Woodworking and paper ...............||207,300||11.2||15.9||8.6|
|Leather footwear ...............||71,100||3.8||4.6||2.5|
|Food and tobacco ...............||185,400||9.9||22.7||12.2|
Whereas in prewar Yugoslavia the leading industries were food processing and light industry, chiefly textile manufacture, in socialist Yugoslavia heavy industry is the principal sector. Mining is
|Table 4. Mineral output (tons)|
|hard coal ...............||1,410,000||757,000||1,154,000||1,283,000||643,000||511,000|
|brown coal ...............||4,312,000||3,823,000||7,204,000||9,628,000||8,989,000||8,960,000|
|Natural gas (eu m) ...............||3,000,000||9,000,000||14,000,000||53,000,000||977,000,000||1,897,000,000|
|Crude petroleum ...............||1,000||29,000||110,000||944,000||2,854,000||3,951,000|
|Iron ore ...............||667,000||399,000||731,000||2,200,000||3,694,000||4,451,000|
|Manganese ore ...............||6,000||8,000||13,000||13,000||15,000||19.0001|
|Copper ore ...............||984,000||646,000||1,116,000||2,370,000||9,420,000||17,533,000|
|Lead-zinc ore ...............||775,000||618,000||1,187,000||1,920,000||3,113,000||3,821,000|
|Antimony ore ...............||19,000||30,000||81,000||110,000||90,000||86,000|
important, but unlike formerly, a considerable part of the mining output is now processed in the country. The manufacturing industry generally meets the country’s needs. The chemical industry is developing rapidly. Growth in light industry has been achieved both by modernizing prewar facilities and by building new up-to-date enterprises. Textile manufacture is the leading light industry, and food processing and woodworking are well developed. A number of manufacturing sectors are becoming increasingly oriented toward export.
MINING AND POWER ENGINEERING. Virtually all the country’s iron ore comes from Bosnia (Ljubija deposit, whose ore has an iron content of 44 percent, and Vareš) and from Macedonia (Kičevo deposit). Among the alloy metals, manganese is extracted in Bosnia and molybdenum in southeastern Serbia; the country’s chromite deposits are almost exhausted. Copper ore is extracted chiefly in the East Serbian Mountains (Bor and Majdanpek mines), and lead and zinc ore is mined in southwestern Serbia (Trepča in the Kosovo autonomous province), Macedonia (Zletovo), and Montenegro (Brskovo, Šuplja-Stena). Gold, silver, and bismuth are extracted as by-products from the copper and lead-zinc ores. Bauxite is mined in Bosnia-Hercegovina (Mostar, Vlasenica), Montenegro (Nikšić), and Croatia (Šibenik region and Istria Peninsula). Mercury is extracted at Idrija in Slovenia. Nonore minerals include magnesite, asbestos, cement marl, marble and other building stone, quartz sand, refractory and ceramic clays, and salt.
Yugoslavia is relatively rich in energy resources, the principal ones being coal and hydroelectric power. In 1975 coal provided 43 percent of the country’s energy, petroleum and natural gas 46 percent, and hydroelectric power 11 percent. The country’s considerable coal reserves include low-grade lignite (90.9 percent), brown coal (8.6 percent), and hard coal (0.5 percent). The largest of the country’s widely dispersed deposits are the Drava-Sava brown coal and lignite basin (Sava and Drava interfluve in Slovenia and the adjacent part of Croatia), the Central Bosnian (Zeni-ca, Breza, and Kakanj) and Tuzla basins, which contain chiefly high-grade brown coal, and the Timok-Morava basin in Serbia, which yields brown coal and lignite. To make use of the large reserves of low-grade lignite, extracted chiefly by the opencut method, briquette plants and steam power plants have been built at Kosovo, at Kolubara and Kostolac (both near Belgrade), at Kreka (Bosnia), and at Velenje (Slovenia). Before the war most of the coal extracted had a high caloric value, and lignite accounted for no more than 20 percent of the output. By 1977 lignite accounted for about 76 percent of all the coal extracted by weight. Petroleum reserves are comparatively small, with 70 percent of the output coming from the Moslavacki Basin in the Sava Valley southwest of Zagreb and the Podravski Basin in Croatia and 30 percent from the Banat Basin in Serbia. (Table 4 shows the output of mineral resources.)
Seventy percent of the petroleum used is imported. The oil refining industry is represented by three modernized enterprises in Rijeka, Sisak, and Bosanski Brod and two new plants in Pančevo and Novi Sad. The output of the five refineries, which have a combined capacity of more than 15 million tons, meets the country’s needs.
Half of the country’s hydroelectric potential of more than 40 billion kilowatt-hours had been harnessed by 1976. Hydroelectric power plants produce about half of the total electricity generated; the largest are the Split, Mavrovo, Senj, Piva, and Zvornik power plants. Most of the hydroelectric power plants are located on the western slopes of the Dinaric Alps (Cetina, Neretva, and Trebišnica rivers), on the eastern slopes of the Dinaric Alps (Drina, Lim, and Vrbas rivers), and in the Alps (series of power plants on the Drava, Sava, and Soča rivers). In 1972, Yugoslavia and Rumania, with assistance from the USSR, completed the construction of the Iron Gate hydroelectric power plant with a capacity of 2.1 gigawatts. Yugoslavia receives about half of the power plant’s output, 6 billion kilowatt-hours. The country’s first atomic power plant was under construction at Krško in Slovenia in 1978 (632 megawatts). Among the largest steam power plants are the Tuzla, Kosovo, Kostolac, Trbovlie, and Šoštanj IV. In 1975 the country’s power plants had a combined capacity of 9 gigawatts, of which hydroelectric plants accounted for 4.8 gigawatts.
FERROUS METALLURGY. The production of ferrous metals is based on local iron ore and chiefly imported coking coal. The coking plants at Lukavac and Zenica produce 2 million tons of coke a year; no coke was produced before the war. The largest metallurgical combine, located at Zenica in Bosnia-Hercegovina, produces about half of the country’s pig iron and steel and one-third of its rolled products. Each republic has a metallurgical combine: Smederevo in Serbia, Sisak in Croatia, Jesenice in Slovenia, Nikšić in Montenegro, and Skopje in Macedonia. High-grade steels account for roughly one-third of the steel output.
NONFERROUS METALLURGY. The country’s nonferrous metallurgy industry uses local raw materials, and much of its output is exported. The production of electrolytic copper is confined to the Bor mining and metallurgical combine in Serbia. The largest enterprises producing rolled copper products, pipes, cables, and wire are located in Svetozarevo (50 percent of the country’s cable output), Titovo Užice, Sevojno, Novi Sad, Prokuplje, and Maribor. Lead and zinc are smelted at the Trepča Combine in Serbia, the Zletovo Combine in Macedonia, and in Mežice and Šabac. The output of aluminum and rolled aluminum products is growing rapidly. Aluminum plants have been established in Kidrečevo, Titograd, and Šibenik, and an alumina enterprise has been built near Zvornik.
MACHINE BUILDING AND METALWORKING. The leading sector of industry, machine building and metalworking accounts for about one quarter of the country’s industrial output. The sector was essentially established during the years of socialist development and now produces machine tools, tractors, motor vehicles, turbines, radios, refrigerators, and many other types of machinery and equipment. Machine building accounted for 28 percent of exports in 1976.
The principal machine tool enterprises are Pervomajska in Zagreb and Ivo Lola Ribar in Belgrade. Transportation machine building specializes in the production of railroad rolling stock (Niš, Kraljevo, Slavonski Brod, and Smederevska Palanka), motor vehicles, and ships. The automotive sector is represented by the Crvena Zastava plant in Kragujevac (cars), the TAM Plant in Maribor (trucks and buses), the FAP Plant in Priboj (heavy trucks and buses), and the Zemun Automotive Plant in Belgrade. Yugoslavia has become one of the world’s leading producers of seagoing merchant and passenger vessels. The largest shipyards are the Treće Maj in Rijeka, the Uljanik in Pula, and the Split Shipyard. The Tito Shipyard in Belgrade and the shipyards in Apatin and Novi Sad build river vessels. Shipbuilding is a major export industry; more than three-fifths of the tonnage is sold abroad. More than 250 types of agricultural machines and tractors are manufactured, chiefly in Belgrade (UMI Association), Novi Sad, Osijek, Skopje, and Sarajevo.
Turbines and diesel engines for the power industry are built at plants in Karlovac, Rijeka, Pula, and elsewhere. The rapidly growing electrical equipment industry exports one-quarter of its output (transformers, electric motors, cables). The leading Yugoslav electrical goods enterprises are the plant in Svetozarevo, Litostroj in Ljubljana, Rade Končar in Zagreb, and the plants in Djakovica, Maribor, Novo Mesto, and Belgrade (Rakovica). In 1978 a lead battery factory was under construction in Bosnia-Hercegovina with technical assistance from the USSR. Electronics and instrument-making, a new sector of machine building, are concentrated in Niš and Kranj, the site of the Elek-tronska Industrija and Iskra production associations. The metal-working industry has a diversified output. The largest machine-building centers are Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. The chemical industry is the most rapidly expanding sector, its growth rate averaging 12 percent from 1971 to 1975. The industry uses primarily local raw materials, both minerals and by-products of nonferrous metallurgy. Basic chemicals are produced in Pančevo, Lukavac, Šabac, Kutina, Prahovo, and Tuzla. New sectors of organic chemistry have been established for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, polystyryl, polyethylene, and other products. The leading chemical combines are in Pancevo, Zagreb (OKI), Belgrade (Hemko), and Split (Jugo-plastika). Various types of industrial rubber goods are produced in Pirot and Kranj; cosmetics and detergents are manufactured chiefly in Osijek and Novo Mesto. Pharmaceuticals are an important export item; the largest enterprises are Pliva in Zagreb, Galenika in Belgrade, and Lek in Ljubljana.
BUILDING MATERIALS. The production of building materials, based on local raw materials, has grown significantly owing to large capital investments and the expansion of housing construction. Most of the enterprises are on the coast, near the rich marl deposits of Split, Pula, and Solin, as well as in Zagreb and Trbovlie.
WOODWORKING AND PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. Most of the country’s output of wood products, pulp, and paper comes from Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia, the republics with the largest timber resources. Large wood-processing combines are located in Prijedor, Banja Luka, Drvar, Ivangrad, Sremska Mitrovica, Skopje, and Zavidovići. The furniture industry, based in Ljubljana, Belgrade, and Skopje, exports much of its output. Pulp and viscose fibers are produced in Loznica, Maglaj, and Banja Luka. In 1977 the wood-processing industry produced 4 million cu m of lumber, more than 900,000 tons of paper and cardboard, more than 28 million sq m of fiberboard, and 278,000 sets of furniture.
TEXTILES. The country’s oldest industrial sector, the textile industry depends chiefly on imported raw materials. Expansion of production has been hindered by the rising prices of raw materials on the world market. The disproportions that once existed between the spinning and weaving output have been eliminated. The main cotton textile centers are Belgrade, Zagreb, Maribor, Varazdin, Murska Sobota, Novi Sad, Vranje, and Štip. Wool fabrics are produced chiefly in Belgrade, Zagreb, Paračin, Leskovac, and Novo Mesto. Between 1939 and 1976 the output of wool fabrics increased fivefold and the output of cotton fabrics tripled. Large quantities of knitted goods are produced. The textile industry is concentrated in Serbia, which accounts for about one-fifth of the country’s cotton fabrics and one-third of its woolen and knitted fabrics.
LEATHER FOOTWEAR. An increasingly export-oriented light industry, the leather footwear industry manufactures, besides footwear, various goods made from natural and man-made leather. The largest footwear enterprises, the Borovo Factory near Vukovar, produces one-third of the national output. There are large
|Table 5. Output of leading industrial products|
|Electricity (billion kW-hr) ...............||2.7||8.9||26||40||48.6|
|Pig iron (tons) ...............||273,000||972,000||1,275,000||2,000,000||1,938,000|
|Steel (tons) ...............||442,000||1,442,000||2,228,000||2,916,000||3,184,000|
|Rolled metals (tons) ...............||293,000||972,000||1,774,000||2,359,000||3,329,000|
|Electrolytic copper (tons) ...............||21,500||35,000||89,300||137,900||121,200|
|Refined lead (tons) ...............||67,200||89,100||97,400||126,000||129,900|
|Zinc (tons) ...............||14,400||35,900||59,000||89,000||98,800|
|Aluminum (tons) ...............||2,600||25,100||47,700||168,300||197,500|
|Rolled copper and alloys (tons) ...............||18,200||34,100||66,100||56,400||65,200|
|Rolled aluminum and alloys (tons) ...............||1,700||36,800||68,500||88,600||119,400|
|Metalworking and woodworking machine tools (tons) ...............||80||4,500||10,900||17,000||28,600|
|Tractors (units) ...............||800||7,300||12,000||33,200||41,800|
|Freight cars (units) ...............||210||3,422||2,609||3,333||1,769|
|Cars (units) ...............||—||10,500||111,000||183,000||233,500|
|Trucks (units) ...............||700||4,600||12,900||14,800||15,900|
|Buses (units) ...............||41||896||3,830||4,627||. . .|
|Television sets (units) ...............||—||14,000||320,000||425,000||427,500|
|Refrigerators (units) ...............||—||36,000||425,000||806,000||690,000|
|Sulfuric acid (tons) ...............||36,000||130,000||747,000||936,000||938,000|
|Soda ash (tons) ...............||33,000||89,000||113,000||147,000||157,000|
|Nitrogen fertilizers, 20% N (tons) ...............||19,000||20,000||1,188,000||1,393,000||1,556,000|
|Phosphate fertilizers, 16% P2O5 (tons) ...............||49,000||248,000||761,000||803,000||607,000|
|Motor vehicle and airplane tires (units) ...............||106,000||903,000||2,763,000||5,110,000||8,126,000|
|Pulp (tons) ...............||34,000||155,000||356,000||439,000||463,000|
|Cement (tons) ...............||1,300,000||2,400,000||4,400,000||7,100,000||8,000,000|
|Cotton fabrics (sq m) ...............||112,000,000||257,000,000||390,000,000||375,500,000||384,000,000|
|Woolen fabrics (sq m) ...............||19,900,000||45,800,000||56,900,000||66,100,000||79,000,000|
|Knitted fabrics (tons) ...............||2,500||8,600||15,800||24,500||25,000|
|Leather footwear (pairs) ...............||5,800,000||15,000,000||31,100,000||48,400,000||53,400,000|
|Table 6. Sown area and harvest of chief crops|
|Sown area (hectares)||Harvest (tons)|
|Sugar beets ...............||76,100||78,000||85,100||123,000||512,000||2,290,000||2,948,000||5,283,000|
factories in Kranj, Zagreb, Skopje, Belgrade, and Vranje.
FOOD AND CONDIMENTS. The nation’s flour mills, vegetable-oil mills, meat-packing plants, and canneries use mainly local raw materials. Between 1939 and 1976 the output of sugar increased five times, canned meat 70 times, and canned vegetables more than 100 times. Many food products are sold on the world market. The food industry is largely confined to Serbia, which produces 70 percent of the country’s sugar, 63 percent of its canned meat, and 43 percent of its canned vegetables. Wine-making is a flourishing industry. The export-oriented tobacco industry is known for its high-quality Macedonian and Hercegovina tobacco. Some 75,000 tons of fermented tobacco were produced in 1977.
Agriculture. The socialist sector owns 15 percent of the cultivated land and produces more than 26 percent of the gross farm output and 47 percent of the commodity farm output. There are three types of socialist agricultural enterprises: farms, cooperatives, and agrocombines, of which the last are especially important. The private sector, consisting of peasant farms not exceeding 10 hectares (ha) in the fertile plains and 15 ha in mountainous regions, controls 85 percent of the cultivated land and produces 74 percent of the gross output.
The gross agricultural output increased by a factor of 2.6 between 1947 and 1977, primarily owing to an intensification of labor through scientific farming practices, increased use of chemicals, and mechanization. Some 2.2 million tons of mineral fertilizers were applied in 1977. The amount of irrigated land has increased since the building of the Danube-Tisa hydroengineering system. In 1976 the socialist sector had at its disposal 25,500 tractors, or about one-third of the tractor fleet by capacity, and the private sector owned 200,000 tractors.
Agriculture accounts for about 9 percent of Yugoslavia’s exports by value. The sectoral structure of agriculture has changed in the course of socialist transformations. Animal husbandry is developing more rapidly than crop farming, although the latter still accounts for more than 60 percent of the gross farm output. Agricultural lands occupy more than 56 percent of the country’s area; forests and scrubland, more than 30 percent. Of the 14.4 million ha of farmland in 1976, 8 million ha were planted to field
|Table 7. Number of livestock and poultry|
|Cattle ...............||4 800,000||5,300,000||5,000,000||5,600,000|
|dairy cows ...............||2,300,000||2,500,000||2,800,000||3,200,000|
crops, orchards, and vineyards, and 6.3 million ha were occupied by meadows and pastures. The area planted to industrial and feed crops has been increasing at the expense of the area sown to grain. Of the land under field crops, 71 percent was devoted to grain, 13 percent to feed crops, 10 percent to vegetables and potatoes, and 6 percent to industrial crops. In 1977 the average wheat yield was 35 quintals per ha, and the average corn yield was 42.5 quintals per ha. Vojvodina, the country’s principal grain growing region, produces one-third of the grain harvest. Grain is also raised in the valleys of the Danube, Sava, Drava, and Morava.
Sugar beets, sunflowers, and tobacco are the leading industrial crops. Fruit growing and viticulture are flourishing in the foothill areas. Perennial plantings are also found on the Adriatic coast; subtropical fruit is grown south of Split. The 1977 fruit harvest included 367,000 tons of apples, 757,000 tons of plums, 1,217,000 tons of grapes. Citrus fruit, almonds, and olives are also raised. Yugoslavia is one of the world’s leading producers of plums. Half of the harvest is used to make plum brandy, and 15 percent is dried (prunes are exported).
About half of the cattle and two-thirds of the sheep are concentrated in the mountain regions, where transhumance is practiced. Stall livestock raising for meat and milk is typical of the plains regions. (Tables 6,7, and 8 show the agricultural output.)
|Table 8. Output of livestock products (tons)|
|Eggs (million units) ...............||902||1,533||2,781||4,041|
Transportation. In 1977, railroads accounted for 35 percent of the country’s freight shipments and 12 percent of its passenger traffic. The corresponding figures for motor transport were 46 percent and 87.5 percent and for river and maritime transport 19 percent and 0.5 percent. Of the 221.1 million tons of freight, including transit shipments, hauled in 1977, 77.4 million tons were conveyed by rail and 100.1 million tons by truck. International transit shipping is important inasmuch as Yugoslav ports serve countries that do not have access to the sea, notably Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Austria.
The country had about 10,000 km of railroads in 1976, of which 2,600 km were electrified. The railroad network is densest in northern Yugoslavia. The principal trunk line connects Jesenice, Ljubljana, Zagreb, Belgrade, Niš, Skopje, and Gevgelija. The 476-km railroad from Belgrade to Bar, completed in 1976, provides Serbia’s shortest route to the Adriatic Sea. The total length of roads is 102,000 km. The main highway, the Brotherhood-Unity Highway, links Zagreb, Belgrade, Niš, and Skopje. The Adriatic Coastal Highway has been completed and extended through the rugged Montenegrin mountains to Kosovo.
In 1977 the maritime fleet totaled 2 million gross registered tons. Most of the maritime freight (exceeding 23 million tons in 1977) is handled by the ports of Rijeka (50 percent), Split, Šibenik, and Dubrovnik. The ports of Bar, Koper, and Ploče have become more important with the construction of new railroads to the coast. Yugoslavia has more than 2,000 km of navigable waterways. The Danube accounts for 86 percent of all river shipping and the Sava for 12.4 percent. Danubian shipping is becoming more important as trade with the socialist countries expands. Belgrade is the largest river port. The international airports are at Belgrade and Zagreb.
An oil pipeline linking Rijeka, Karlovac, Sisak, Bosanski Brod, Vukovar, and Pančevo was under construction in 1978. The Adria oil pipeline, a joint project undertaken by Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, will run more than 700 km from the port of Bakar near Rijeka into Hungary and Czechoslovakia. A network of gas pipelines has been built.
Foreign trade. In the postwar period Yugoslavia’s share of world foreign trade has risen from 0.3 percent to 1.2 percent. In 1977 its exports totaled 89.3 billion dinars and its imports 163.8 billion dinars. Between 1947 and 1977 exports increased 32 times and imports 58 times. Machinery and metal goods accounted for 28.2 percent of exports by value in 1976, nonferrous metals for about 10 percent, chemicals for about 9 percent, textiles for 10 percent, and farm products for 10 percent. The leading imports were machinery and equipment (37 percent by value), chemical products (about 14 percent), ferrous metals (8 percent), and petroleum and petroleum products (more than 10 percent).
Yugoslavia has extensive foreign economic ties. The socialist countries accounted for 33.3 percent of its foreign trade in 1977, the advanced capitalist countries for 51.2 percent, and the developing countries for 15.5 percent. In 1977 the principal buyers of Yugoslavia’s exports were the USSR (21.7 percent), Italy (12.6), the Federal Republic of Germany (7.4 percent), the USA (5.6 percent), and Poland (4.3 percent). Most of its imports came from the Federal Republic of Germany (16.9 percent), the USSR (13.5 percent), Italy (10.7 percent), the USA (5.6 percent), and France (5.2 percent).
Yugoslavia participates in the work of various commissions of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON). It has concluded bilateral and multilateral agreements with the socialist countries in the areas of commodity exchange, production cooperation and specialization, and credit and finance for economic and technical assistance. It maintains strong economic ties with the USSR, from which it receives a considerable share of its imported hard coal, petroleum, diesel fuel, and synthetic rubber and to which it exports bauxite, power transformers, cables, merchant vessels, leather footwear, and other goods. The USSR has rendered technical and economic assistance in the building or modernization of more than 100 industrial facilities, including the metallurgical combines in Smederevo, Zenica, and Skopje, the Trepča mining-metallurgical and chemical combine, the alumina plant near Zvornik, the Zletovo-Sasa and Blagodat lead-zinc mines, and the Lukavac, Kostolac, Kosovo, Obrenovac, Tuzla, and Kakanj steam power plants.
In its foreign economic relations Yugoslavia emphasizes long-term production cooperation and joint investment in the development of national enterprises. From 1968 to 1975 it concluded 289 agreements on long-term production cooperation with countries of the European Economic Community and 79 such agreements with COMECON members. The import of licenses is of growing significance. Foreign tourism is flourishing; more than 5.6 million tourists visited Yugoslavia in 1977. The monetary unit is the dinar.
Economic regions. The current political-administrative division of Yugoslavia, reflecting national and historical circumstances, is
|Table 9. Share of republics in selected national indexes (percent 1976)|
|Area||Population||National income||Industrial output||Agricultural output1|
|Serbia proper ...............||21.8||25.2||24.4||22.4||26.5|
the basis for the economic zoning of the country. The federal structure of the country and economic self-reliance of the republics promote the successful operation of such a system of zoning (see Table 9).
In Yugoslav economic studies, problems of economic geography are usually examined from the standpoint of natural geographic regions. In some republics historical regions, such as Vojvodina, Kosovo, and Dalmatia, are frequently treated as economic regions.
REFERENCESBodrin, V. V., and L. A. Avdeichev. Iugoslaviia. Moscow, 1970.
Blašković, V. Iugoslaviia segodnia. Moscow, 1970. (Translated from Serbo-Croatian.)
Girenko, Iu. S. Sovetskii Soiuz—Iugoslaviia: traditsionnaia druzhba, vsestoronnee sotrudnichestvo. Moscow, 1975.
Sotsialisticheskaia Federativnaia Respublika Iugoslaviia. Moscow, 1975.
[Nikiforov, L. A., and Iu. P. Ostrovidov.] Sotsialisticheskaia Federativnaia Respublika Iugoslaviia: Spravochnik. Moscow, 1975.
Ekonomika Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1966.
Marković, J. Dj. Geografske oblasti Socjalistične Federativne Respublike Jugoslavije, 2nd ed. Belgrade, 1972.
Milošević, M. Geografija Jugoslavije, 3rd ed. Belgrade, 1967.
Mihajlović, K. Rasprave o razvoju Jugoslavenskeprivrede. Belgrade, 1977.
Demografski i ekonomski aspekti proswrne pokretljivosti stanovništvau Jugoslaviji posle drugog svetskog rata. Belgrade, 1968.
Ilešič, S. “Geografska regionalizacija Jugoslavije.” Geografski vestnik, 1961, vol. 33, pp. 3–23.
Farkaš, V. Ekonomika jugoslavenske industrije. Zagreb, 1965.
Koncepcija dugoročnog razvoja Jugoslavije do 1985. Belgrade, 1975.
Melik, A. Jugoslavia. Ljubljana, 1958.
Rodič, D. Geografija Jugoslavije, vols. 1–2. Belgrade, 1967.
Rogič, V. “Urbanizacija Jugoslavije.” Geografski gorizont, Zagreb, 1973, nos. 3–4.
Suvremeni problemi jugoslavenske privrede i ekonomska politika. Edited by J. Sirotkovič. Zagreb, 1965.
Vriser, J. Uticajnesfere jugoslavenskih gradova i drugih sredistva: Zb. IX kong. geografa Jugoslavije. Sarajevo, 1974.
Čobeljić, N. Privreda Jugoslavije, parts 1–2. Belgrade, 1972–74.
Samoupravni drustveno ekonomski razvoj Jugoslavije 1947–1977. Belgrade, 1978.
The Yugoslav armed forces consist of a regular army and a territorial defense force. The Yugoslav People’s Army comprises ground forces, a navy, an air force, which includes antiaircraft forces, and border-patrol troops. As the commander in chief the president directs the armed forces through the Federal Secretariat for National Defense, which includes the General Staff.
The armed forces were established during the Yugoslav peoples’ struggle against the fascist occupation forces. On June 27, 1941, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia formed the General Staff of the National Liberation Partisan Detachments, headed by J. Broz Tito. By the end of 1941 some 80,000 persons were fighting in the ranks of the partisan detachments. Formed on Dec. 22, 1941, in the Bosnian village of Rudo, the First Proletarian Brigade became the nucleus of the National Liberation Army of Yugoslavia (NLAY). Within a year some 150,000 persons were fighting in the ranks of army units and partisan detachments. In 1942, divisions and corps were created. At the end of 1943 the NLAY and the partisan detachments numbered about 300,000 persons. The Soviet Union supplied the NLAY with armaments (155,300 rifles, more than 38,000 automatic weapons, more than 15,500 machine guns, 5,800 heavy guns and mortars, 65 tanks, and 491 aircraft), as well as equipment, ammunition, and medicine. One infantry and one tank brigade, as well as two air force regiments, were formed from among Yugoslav citizens in the USSR. In October 1944, Soviet and NLAY forces liberated Belgrade and a number of other cities in Yugoslavia. By May 15, 1945, the 800,000-man Yugoslav Army, as the national army was called from March 1945, had completed the liberation of all of Yugoslavia. In 1951 the Yugoslav Army was renamed the Yugoslav People’s Army.
Under the national defense law, all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 55 are eligible for military service; during wartime women 18 to 40 years of age may also be drafted. The normal term of active duty is two to three years, although citizens with a secondary education may serve 18 months and those with a higher education, one year. Officers are trained at military academies and schools.
Medicine and public health. In 1976 the birth rate was 18.1 and the mortality rate 8.5 per 1,000 inhabitants; the infant mortality rate was 37.1 per 1,000 live births. In 1950 the corresponding figures were 30.2, 13, and 118.4. As of 1971–72 the average life expectancy was 64.5 years for men and 70.2 years for women.
Cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors are the leading causes of illness and death. In socialist Yugoslavia there have been notable successes in combating infectious diseases that were widespread before the war. The incidence of intestinal infections and tuberculosis has declined sharply, and smallpox, trachoma, and malaria have been eradicated.
The central administrative body concerned with public health, the Federal Committee on Labor, Public Health, and Social Security, includes a department of health care, a main sanitary inspectorate, and a board of pharmaceutical service and medical supply. In the republics public health matters are handled by republic secretariats of public health; local communities also have such secretariats. Public health services are organized on the principle of decentralization. Central planning encompasses only the most important problems and coordinates local plans. Under the 1969 National Health Law medical services are supervised by government agencies and health insurance institutions. Most public health institutions are built by local communities or production associations, and they are supervised by central and local public health agencies. Public health institutions are autonomous in matters of management and finance.
The compulsory health insurance program covers 95 percent of the population. Most public health services are funded by contributions from insured persons and industrial enterprises. In 1975 there were 272 hospitals with 127,600 beds, or 5.9 beds per 1,000 inhabitants. Outpatient care was provided by polyclincs (3,800), health centers for women (1,200) and children (1,200), and school hygiene centers (631). Medical facilities also included 2,700 dental clinics, 194 outpatient rehabilitation centers, 1,000 health institutions serving industrial workers, and about 600 dispensaries. The number of medical institutions increased by a factor of more than 3.5 between 1939 and 1970.
In 1976 the country had 32,300 physicians, or one for every 668 inhabitants, compared to one for every 3,000 inhabitants in 1950. There were also 6,300 stomatologists and dentists, 4,600 pharmacists, and 80,700 secondary and other medical workers (1974).
Physicians, dentists, and pharmacists are trained by 19 educational institutions; secondary medical personnel are trained by 98 medical schools. In 1975 public health expenditures amounted to more than 23.4 billion dinars, or 24.7 percent of the state budget.
Popular health resorts include the balneological resorts of Vrnjačka Banja, Ilidja, and Rogaška Slatina and the mountainclimatic resort of Bled. On the Adriatic coast and islands there are numerous seaside climatic resorts, of which the most famous are Opatija, Split, and Dubrovnik.
V. B. TSYBULSKII
Veterinary services. In 1975 there were outbreaks of anthrax (59), Newcastle disease (168), rabies (61), brucellosis (12), fowl tuberculosis (33), myxomatosis (16), and pullorum disease (84). Other recorded diseases included cattle rhinotracheitis, blackleg, paratuberculosis, leucosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, Auesca’s disease, swine erysipelas, equine infectious anemia, contagious ecthyma, fowl pox, canine plague, and various parasitic diseases.
The central veterinary agency is the Veterinary Board, which is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Agricultural Committee. The republics and autonomous provinces have veterinary boards headed by chief veterinary inspectors, the directors of the boards. The veterinary boards are included in secretariats of agriculture. In the districts and communes the veterinary service is headed by veterinary inspectors. Each commune has a veterinary station that maintains several clinics, which in turn operate several veterinary posts.
In 1976 there were 4,800 veterinarians. Specialists are trained by the veterinary departments of the universities of Zagreb, Belgrade, Sarajevo, and Ljubljana. Veterinary research is conducted at the university veterinary departments, as well as at seven specialized veterinary research institutes, in veterinary laboratories, and at enterprises producing vaccines, serums, and medicine.
S. I. KARTUSHIN
Among the Yugoslav (South Slav) peoples education developed unevenly. The first schools were established in the feudal period, first by monasteries and later by church parishes. During the 12th and 13th centuries several cathedral schools were founded in Dalmatia. The growth of cities contributed to the organization of guild schools, which were gradually transformed into urban schools. Such schools were founded in Zadar and Split in the 14th century and in Kotor, Šibenik, Trogir, and elsewhere in the early 15th century. After a comparatively rapid period of development in the 14th and 15th centuries, learning was stifled in Serbia, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Hercegovina for several centuries by the Turkish conquest. In Croatia instruction was conducted in Latin, and the study of the Slavic written language was forbidden. Among the Slovenes, who did not have their own written language, the official language was German. From the 13th to the 15th century about 20 parish schools were established in the Slovene areas.
The 16th-century Reformation had a strong impact on education in Croatia and especially in Slovenia, where general schools emphasizing the native language were founded in towns and villages and the number of guild schools increased. With the triumph of the Counter-Reformation in Croatia and Slovenia, education came under the control of the Jesuits, who sought to suppress Protestant influences in education. The Jesuits focused their attention on middle-level and higher schools, which catered to the children of the privileged social strata. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries the Jesuits opened Gymnasiums in Ljubljana, Celovec, Gorica, and Trieste.
A turning point in the development of education among the Yugoslav peoples occurred in the late 18th and first half of the 19th centuries, when capitalist relations emerged. As part of the Austrian Empire, the schools of Slovenia, Croatia, and Vojvodina were shaped by the imperial school laws of 1774 and 1777. These laws established six years of compulsory schooling and three parallel types of primary schools: two-grade rural schools, three- and four-grade main schools in cities, and four-grade normal schools in administrative centers. Graduates of the main and normal schools were admitted to Gymnasiums, or secondary Latin schools.
A law enacted in 1869 provided for eight years of compulsory schooling in some parts of Slovenia and six years of compulsory education, supplemented by two years of optional instruction, in other parts of the region. In Croatia, an 1888 law established compulsory education in four-year primary schools, two-year supplementary schools, and three-year civil schools. A secondary education was offered in eight-year Gymnasiums and six-year Realschulen. Vojvodina had a virtually identical school system. In Slovenia, Croatia, and Vojvodina the Realschulen were converted into eight-grade Realgymnasiums in the last quarter of the 19th century. The network of Realgymnasiums and classical Gymnasiums expanded, and the University of Zagreb was opened in 1874.
In Serbia three-year primary schools sprang up in the early 19th century, and the country’s first four-year Gymnasium was established in Belgrade in 1835. The Statute on Organizing Primary Schools was promulgated in 1833. From the 1840’s to the 1860’s three special legislative acts established a system of primary and secondary schools. Kragujevac acquired a lycée in 1838, an engineering school in 1846, an agricultural school in 1853, and a teacher-training school in 1871. The Kragujevac lycée was subsequently moved to Belgrade, where it was reorganized as the Great School in 1863 and a university in 1905.
In Montenegro monastery schools were the sole educational institutions for a long time. The country’s first primary school was opened in Cetinje in 1833, and the next year a more advanced school was founded in the city with Russian aid. Montenegro’s first secondary school (seminary) and a higher school for women were founded in Cetinje in 1863. A law enacted in 1878 established the Montenegrin school system, providing for four years of compulsory and free education. A Gymnasium law was promulgated in 1880.
In Bosnia-Hercegovina, a province within the Ottoman Empire until 1878, education developed extremely slowly. The region’s religious and few private schools were supplemented by state-supported general schools in accordance with a law promulgated in 1869. In the general schools instruction in Turkish was compulsory. A similar lag prevailed in Macedonia, where the first primary schools appeared in the 1830’s and 1840’s. Primary schools proliferated in the second half of the 19th century, when the first Sunday and evening schools for adults were organized. A pedagogical school was opened in Štip in 1868.
By 1918 various types of school systems and educational institutions coexisted in Yugoslavia. The school laws enacted in 1929–30, aimed at unifying the school system and introducing free compulsory primary education throughout the country, were never implemented. In the 1939–40 academic year the country’s lower and higher public schools, excluding urban schools and lower Gymnasiums, were attended by 50.1 percent of the school-age children. Regional differences persisted. The school system had a distinct class character; the transition from primary to secondary education was not coordinated; and high tuition fees continued to be charged in the secondary and higher schools.
After World War II the government of people’s Yugoslavia and the Communist Party of Yugoslavia undertook to resolve the urgent problems confronting public education. A uniform school system was created to meet the people’s needs, and the goals and tasks of instruction were redefined. The present system of public education is based on the General Law on School Education in the FPRY (1958), which introduced a three-level system of education. The first level encompasses kindergartens (for children three to seven years of age) and compulsory eight-year general-education schools (for children seven to 14 years of age). Those who have completed the eight-year school may continue their education in one of several types of schools: a four-year general-education secondary school (Gymnasium), a four-or-five-year vocational secondary school (technicum), a lower two- or three-year vocational school, or a factory school offering two or three years of training. The third level, accessible to secondary-school graduates, comprises two-year semihigher educational institutions and higher schools, both universities and institutes, offering four or five years of instruction. The educational system includes institutions for adult education.
In the 1975–76 academic year the country’s more than 13,400 eight-year schools had an enrollment of approximately 2.9 million pupils; 459 Gymnasiums, 211,900 pupils; 710 technicums, more than 245,300 pupils; and 792 factory schools, 247,300 pupils. The country’s 319 higher educational institutions were attended by 404,300 students. The leading higher educational institutions are the universities of Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Sarajevo, and Skopje. There are also universities in Titograd, Niš, Novi Sad, Prština, Rijeka, and Split. In 1974, Yugoslavia had 1,426 research and specialized libraries, 1826 public libraries, and 371 museums.
(See alsoMACEDONIA, SERBIA, SLOVENIA. CROATIA, and MONTENEGRO.)
I. P. STETSIAK and D. P. MANSFEL’D
Natural and technical sciences, PRIOR TO THE 19TH CENTURY. During the Middle Ages the scientific views of the Slavic peoples inhabiting the territory of present-day Yugoslavia were strongly influenced by Byzantine science. Rudimentary geographical and medical knowledge was reflected in the written works of the 12th and 13th centuries. The most important cultural and scientific center in the Balkans from the 12th to the 16th century was the Dubrovnik Republic, whose traditions influenced European scientific thought in the latter half of the 16th and 17th centuries. Among early Copernicans were Franjo Petrić (F. Patrizi) and I. Daničić. M. A. Dominisof Split was one of the first to perceive a correlation between marine tides and the action of the moon. The University of Ljubljana was founded in 1595.
In the 17th and 18th centuries oppressive Ottoman rule impelled many South Slavic scientists and scholars to emigrate, chiefly to Italy. The most famous of the émigrés was the mathematician, astronomer, and physicist M. Getaldić, who designed a telescope with a spherical mirror and wrote a treatise on the solution of algebraic equations, published in 1630. Another such émigré was the physician S. Santorio. At the end of the 17th century J. V. Valvasor produced a major work on Slovenia describing its geography, natural features, and mineral resources. In Zagreb the Jesuits founded an academy (the future university) in 1669 and a school of laboratory research in 1769. In 1762, M. A. Plenčič introduced the idea of the microbic nature of infectious diseases. R. I. Bošković, who was elected an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1760, won European renown for his original theory of matter. He was the first to propound the idea of the universe’s contraction and expansion, and he developed a theory of the relativity of measurements of space and time. A school of navigation was organized in Rijeka in 1774. Students from the Yugoslav (South Slav) lands attended higher educational institutions in Vienna, Budapest, Prague, St. Petersburg, and elsewhere, frequently continuing their work abroad.
FROM THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY TO 1918. During the first half of the 19th century the ground was prepared for the establishment of independent research and educational centers and the development of scientific inquiry in the Yugoslav lands.
In Serbia the development of scientific research was linked to the organization of a lycée in Belgrade. Transferred from Kragujevac in 1838, the lycée was reorganized as the Great School in 1863 and the University of Belgrade in 1905. While teaching at the Great School (from 1853), J. Pančić, the first Serbian naturalist, published major works on the flora of Serbia from 1862 to 1876 and in 1884. Pancic established a herbarium and a botanical garden in Belgrade in the 1870’s, and in 1887 he was elected the first president of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His botanical research was continued by G. Beck, L. Adamović, and N. Košanin, noted for his book On Vegetation (1914). L. Fokić, the first professor of zoology at the Great School (from 1878), published a three-volume survey of the fauna of Serbia in 1883.
Another member of Pančić’s department, J. Žujović, did pioneering work on the geography and geology of Serbia and the other Yugoslav lands. Žujović organized a geological institute at the Great School and founded the Serbian Geological Society. The founder of modern scientific geology in Serbia was J. Cvijić, the author of fundamental works on karst and Quaternary glaciation in the Balkan Peninsula. He organized a geographical institute at the University of Belgrade and founded the Serbian Geographical Society. S. Urošević wrote on mineralogy and petrography and S. Radovanović on stratigraphy. The cartographer R. Dedinac compiled numerous maps, including maps for Cvijić’s books. V. Jakšić was the first to make systematic weather observations and emerged as the organizer of the Serbian meteorological service. The pioneer of modern chemistry in Serbia was S. Lozanić, who wrote on mineralogy and on analytic, organic, and theoretical chemistry. Lozanić and M. Jovičić published the first Serbian textbook of organic chemistry in 1890. At the Great School, S. Marković introduced courses in theoretical physics (1897–1907) and thermodynamics.
Three Belgrade mathematicians laid the foundation for the teaching of mathematics in Serbia: D. Nešić, who wrote on trigonometry and combinatorics, M. Petrović, the author of Elements of Mathematical Phenomenology (1911), and B. Gavrilović, who wrote on geometry, algebra, and the theory of functions. Studies in astronomy, conducted prior to the early 1870’s by J. Čokor and other amateurs, were given impetus by the establishment of a permanent observatory in Belgrade in 1891.
Among the teachers at the Military Academy in Belgrade, known as the Artillery School from 1850 to 1880, were the chemist Iovičić, S. Zdravković, author of the textbook Fundamentals of Mechanics (vols. 1–6, 1875–80), and Z. Dimitrijević, a military engineer whose works on the theory of steam engines and boilers paved the way for Serbian technical literature. Intensive road building at the turn of the century stimulated applied research on bridge and tunnel construction by K. Živoković, S. Jelić, and other civil engineers.
One of the first Serbian medical researchers was the military doctor V. Djordjević, who wrote on sanitation, hygiene, and folk medicine and who was instrumental in the adoption of the first public health law in Serbia in 1881 and the founding of a physicians’ society in 1872. V. Subotić, a surgeon at the state hospital in Belgrade, initiated a major school of surgery. The physician N. Hadži-Nikolić wrote on gynecology and I. Ivanović on otorhinolaryngology.
In Croatia, the leading research centers were the university and the Museum of Natural History in Zagreb. The Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was established in Zagreb in 1867. One of the initiators of scientific research in Croatia was L. Vukotinović, who in 1869 published jointly with J. Schlosser a basic work on the native flora. The Museum of Natural History sponsored the regional botanical studies of L. Rossi and D. Hire, S. Brusina’s work in zoology, A. Langhoffer’s research in entomology, and K. Babić’s studies of Adriatic fauna.
At the University of Zagreb, Dj. Pilar and D. Gorjanović-Kramberger, the discoverer of the remains of the Krapina Caveman, trained a group of geologists and paleontologists that included F. Koch, acclaimed for his work on the geology of Slavonia, F. Šuklje, and J. Poljak. Another professor at the university, A. Mohorovičić, established the existence of a boundary surface between the earth’s crust and the mantle and was active in organizing the seismic and meteorological services. The study of physical geography was initiated by P. Matković. Other eminent men of science at the university included V. Vouk, who paved the way for research in physiology, the mathematician V. Varičak, who wrote on non-Euclidean geometry and studied Bošković’s theoretical heritage, and the mathematician J. Majcen, who worked on projective and analytic geometry. Astronomical observations were made by I. Stozir at the observatory of the Museum of Natural History and by S. Gopčević at the observatory in Mali-Lošin.
The Ljubljana Museum of Natural History, founded in 1831, played a major role in the advancement of science in Slovenia. Regional geographical studies were conducted by S. Rutar, J. Jesenko, and other geographers, and maps were compiled by P. Kozler. The Geological Society was established in Ljubljana in 1852. Geological investigations were carried out by M. V. Lipold and M. Cilenšek; F. Seidl conducted research in climatology. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, A. Paulin organized the publication of collections of dried native flora. F. Erjavec wrote numerous popular science books. In Bosnia-Hercegovina scientific research was promoted by the Sarajevo Museum of Natural History (1888). F. Katzer, who worked in the museum’s geology department, produced many works on regional geology and karst and trained a group of mining geologists that included S. Turina and T. Jakšić. During the 1870’s and 1880’s, F. Balif organized a weather service. In general, however, conditions in the Yugoslav lands were not conducive to scientific endeavor. Many scientists and inventors, among them N. Tesla, known for his inventions in electrical and radio engineering, found it necessary to work abroad.
FROM 1918 TO 1945. The establishment of a unified Yugoslav state in 1918 revitalized scientific research. The University of Ljubljana was reorganized in 1919, with Slovene becoming the language of instruction. New scientific research institutions were founded, including state-supported institutes such as the Geological Institute in Belgrade (1930), several university research institutes, and the Slovene Scientific Society for Humanistic Studies (1921), renamed the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts after the creation of a natural sciences department in 1938. Nevertheless, the development of a national science was hampered by the disparity in the scientific progress of the various regions, the small number of specialized research institutions, insufficient funding, and inadequate equipment. In the interwar period most research was conducted within the framework of existing scientific schools.
In Serbia the scientific schools that had emerged at the University of Belgrade were represented by the mathematicians M. Petrović (theory of functions), J. Karamata (mathematical analysis), and M. Milanković (applied mathematics). Milanković also won acclaim for his work on solar radiation and its influences on geophysical processes. The university’s eminent geologist J. Cvijić produced a two-volume textbook on geomorphology (1924–26). Important work was also done by Cvijić’s students V. Petković (tectonics), B. Milojević, and V. Radovanović. The geologist V. Laskarev conducted research in stratigraphy and paleontology. The scientists at the university worked closely with researchers at the Geological Institute and the Seismological Institute (J. Mihajlović). An instructor at the Military Geography Institute, S. Bošković, initiated international triangulation measurements in the Balkans and compiled a number of topographical maps. R. Burian organized the Institute of Physiology at the university, and I. Djaja published Yugoslavia’s first university-level textbook on human and animal physiology (1923).
Research in chemistry was conducted by M. Leko, V. Mićović (organic chemistry), N. Pušin (thermal analysis), and P. Tutundžić (electrochemistry). The Chemistry Institute was organized at the university in 1919. The university instructors M. Stoiljković and D. Jovanović initiated research in physical chemistry. The distinguished physicist P. Savič began his research at the university. Working in Paris in the 1930’s, Savič established, jointly with I. Joliot-Curie, the decay of uranium nuclei upon irradiation with neutrons. Milanković played a prominent role in organizing the technical sciences.
Meanwhile, at the University of Zagreb the study of mathematics was advanced by S. Bohniček (non-Euclidean geometry) and D. Segen (differential geometry). Research in physics flourished under the direction of S. Hondl, the founder of the university’s subdepartment of experimental physics (1911) and physics institute (1937), and I. Plotnikov. From 1935 to 1941, V. Prelog conducted research in organic chemistry and biochemistry at the university. The development of geology was promoted by the work of the Geological Institute, founded in 1922 by F. Koh. The botanists I. Pevalek and S. Horvatić continued the study of floristics. Research in biology and medicine was conducted at the university by D. Perović (anatomy) and at medical institutions by B. Zarnik (histology) and F. Bubanović (pharmacology).
At the University of Ljubljana, the Institute of Geology and Paleontology was founded in 1928 on the initiative of M. Salopek, and a school of geographers emerged that included V. Bohinec and F. Baš. The level of instruction in mathematics was raised through J. Plemelj’s works on mathematical analysis, algebra, and the theory of functions, and R. Zupančić’s books on geometry. Research in phytogeny and zoogeography was conducted by I. Hadžić, and in colloidal chemistry by M. Samec. During trie fascist occupation (1941—45) the country’s research institutions and most of its higher educational institutions were closed down, and scientific work was virtually paralyzed.
SINCE 1945. After the National Liberation War measures were taken to broaden the base of scientific research. Among the new institutes that were founded were the Institute of Crop Farming (1945) and the Institute of Agricultural Mechanization (1947) in Belgrade, the geological institutes in Skopje (1944–45) and Ljubljana (1946), the Adriatic Institute (1945) in Zagreb, and the Institute for Electronics and Automation in Ljubljana (1947). In 1955 the Yugoslav Commission on Nuclear Energy was founded to coordinate the work of three institutes that had been established between 1947 and 1950: the B. Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Belgrade, the R. Bošković Nuclear Research Institute in Zagreb, and the J. Stefan Nuclear Institute of the University of Ljubljana. Research was stepped up at the traditional centers of learning—the universities of Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana. New universities were established in Sarajevo, Skopje, Rijeka, Split, Maribor, and elsewhere. The first higher educational institutions were founded in Montenegro (university in Titograd), Vojvodina (university in Novi Sad), and Kosovo (university in Pršstina). Academies of sciences and arts were founded in Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro. The Council of Academies of Sciences and Arts of Yugoslavia was created in 1960. Many new learned societies were founded.
A characteristic feature of postwar Yugoslav science has been the expansion of basic research. Mathematicians are working on differential equations (I. Vidav, T. Andjelić, D. Karapandžić, B. Rasajski), functional analysis (B. Stankovic, M. Atanackovic, B. Popov), number theory (V. Avakumović), and geometry (S. Bilinskii, R. Cesarec). A number of hitherto unstudied branches of mathematics are being developed, including probability theory and mathematical statistics (V. Vranić, R. Kašanin), the theory of finite automata (M. Stojković), linear programming (A. Vadnal), and special functions (Z. Janković).
In physics, great emphasis is placed on nuclear research, largely organized by P. Savić (foreign member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1958) and advanced by I. Supek. Yugoslavia’s first research reactor, built with the help of Soviet specialists, went into operation in 1959. Other research fields include solid-state physics, spectroscopy (A. Hadži), neutron physics (J. Pop Jordanov), and electrophysics (A. Peterlin). In chemistry, extensive work is being done in organic chemistry (Dj. Dimitrijević, M. Mihailović, M. Tišler, D. Vitorović), the chemistry of natural compounds (M. Stefanović), biochemistry (Dj. Stefanović), inorganic chemistry (S. Radosavljevic, D. Grdenić), theoretical chemistry (D. Hadži), and the chemistry of metals and polarography (I. Filipović). Studies in chemical technology have been conducted by F. Kočevar and R. Podorski.
Major studies of the geography of Yugoslavia have been done by S. Ilešić. Regional geographical and geological investigations have been conducted by K. Petković, M. Pavlović, M. Lutovac, and A. Urošević. Outstanding work in geology has been done by I. Rakovec (tectonics, paleontology), N. Pantic (paleontology), J. Roglić (geomorphology), A. Takšić (geology of coal), and F. Ožegović (petroleum geology). There have been notable achievements in the study of karst. The Institute for the Study of Karst in Postojna, founded in 1947 by R. Savnik, has become an international center of karst research. L. Marić and M. Petrik have written on various problems of karst, and V. Jevdević and S. Milojević have studied the hydrology of karst. The hydrological studies of Ilešić, A. Lazić, D. Dukić, M. Pećinar, J. Ridjanović, and T. Rakićević are of considerable economic importance. Oceanographic research is being conducted in the Adriatic Sea aboard the Hvar. Significant work is also being done in seismology (J. Mokrović) and meteorology (O. Reja).
In the biological sciences, S. Stankovič (foreign member of the USSR Academy of Sciences from 1966) has been widely acclaimed for his work on the fauna of lakes and the biogeography and ecology of animals. A group of Slovene biologists published the first Catalog of the Fauna of Yugoslavia in 1967. Modern biological research in Macedonia was given impetus by the works of the zoologists S. Karaman and A. Dimovski. I. Horvat completed a systematic geobotanical survey of Yugoslavia. The complete eight-volume edition of the Flora of Serbia was published between 1970 and 1975. Much attention has been given to the protection of the natural environment. Important work is being done in microbiology and virology (M. Djurišić, A. Terzin), in physiology (Z. Bujas), and on biological problems relating to the transplanting of organs and tissues (P. Martinović).
There have been notable achievements in medical research. A. śtampar has won renown as the founder of a scientific school of hygiene. Outstanding work has been done in immunology by D. Ikic (foreign member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences from 1975), in orthopedics by B. Brecelj (foreign member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences from 1963), and in otorhinolaryngology by S. Podvinec. Extensive research is under way in allergology (V. Spužić), in cardiology (V. Arnovljević, I. Djordjević), on methods of combating infectious diseases (K. Todorović), and in endocrinology (I. Tadžer). In surgery a prominent place is occupied by the works of I. Papo, S. Petković, and V. Stojanović.
Agricultural research has focused on phytopathology and agricultural entomology (M. Josifović, L. Vasiljević), the selective breeding of crops (S. Borojević, R. Savić [foreign members of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences from 1970], T. Vrebalov), livestock raising and veterinary science, soil science, and the development of agriculture in mountain regions.
In the technical sciences, the leading research fields are electrical engineering (P. Miljanić), power engineering (D. Veličković, D. Savić), the mechanics of soils and dams (P. Serafimov), and shipbuilding. Since the 1950’s, several engineering projects of considerable economic importance have been completed in power engineering, transportation, and agriculture.
B. A. STAROSTIN
Social sciences, PHILOSOPHY. The emergence of philosophical thought among the peoples of Yugoslavia dates from the early Middle Ages. The cultural flowering in Serbia from the 12th to the 15th century produced some noteworthy religious philosophical writings. At the beginning of the 15th century the city of Dubrovnik became an important cultural center, attracting many Yugoslav thinkers. In the 16th century Franjo Petrić (Francesco Patrizi), a philosophy teacher in Florence and Rome, expounded a doctrine blending Neoplatonism with a new interpretation of nature. The 18th-century scientist Rudjer Bošković, who taught at several European universities, developed a natural philosophy of dynamic atomism. Other Yugoslav thinkers of European renown were M. Vlačić (Matthias Flacius Illyricus), one of the ideologists of German Protestantism, Marco Dominis, who developed a Utopian theory criticizing Catholic doctrine, and Juraj Krizanic, who called for Slavic unity under Russia’s protection. In Serbia, Enlightenment and rationalist ideas were disseminated by Dositej Obradović, and in Montenegro the poet and thinker Petar Petrović Njegoš developed a humanistic world view.
The first textbook on logic, physics, and metaphysics was published in 1752 by Abbot Andrija Kačić Miočić. By the second half of the 19th century textbooks on philosophy, logic, aesthetics, and psychology were being written under the influence of German classical philosophy and positivism. The authors of these works—Konstantin Branković, Dimitrije Matić, and Alimpije Vasiljević in Serbia and Franjo Marković and Dj. Arnold in Croatia—taught philosophy at the Great School in Belgrade and at the University of Zagreb.
In the late 19th and first third of the 20th centuries idealist concepts and schools were highly influential. Branislav Petronijević propounded an idealist theory of cognition called empiriorationalism. In Bozidar Knežević’s theory of evolution, materialist tendencies were combined with teleologism. Dragiša Djurić sought to combine positivism with certain tenets of historical materialism.
Marxist ideas began to filter into the Yugoslav lands in the late 19th century, but they acquired a large following only after the formation of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY) in 1919. The founder of the socialist trend in social thought was Svetozar Marković, whose materialist doctrine attracted many followers. A translation of the Communist Manifesto and other works by K. Marx and F. Engels appeared in 1871, and several of V. I. Lenin’s works, including part of What Is to Be Done?, were translated in 1904.
Between 1918 and 1941 various irrationalist and intuitionist currents became popular; their leading exponents were A. Bazala, P. Vuk-Pavlović, B. Lorenc, V. Dvorniković, K. Atanasijevic, and M. Djurić. The philosopher F. Veber developed a phenomenological approach to ethics, aesthetics, and religion. As it gained ground, Marxist philosophy came into sharp conflict with idealist philosophy. During the 1920’s much attention was given to the philosophical issues raised by the theory of relativity; Sima Markovic assailed the idealist view of modern science. In the next decade heated polemics broke out over philosophy’s function and purpose in social life and over the relation of Marxist theory to science and art. O. Prica and D. Nedeljković defended the Marxist point of view.
After World War II the Marxist classics were translated in socialist Yugoslavia. In the late 1940’s and the 1950’s Yugoslav philosophers dealt primarily with such questions as the specific characteristics of the Yugoslav revolution, the building of socialism, workers’ and social self-management, and the role of the party and the state in the socialist society.
In the latter half of the 1950’s and in the 1960’s the subject matter and structure of Marxist philosophy came under scrutiny. At a symposium held in Bled in 1960 polemics over the theory of reflection resulted in a rift between the adherents of dialectical and historical materialism and the exponents of “authentic Marxism,” who sought to reinterpret Marxist philosophy in the spirit of anthropologism and abstract humanism. Such philosophers as G. Petrović, M. Marković, and S. Stojanović, influenced by existentialism and the social philosophy of the Frankfurt school, embarked on a revision of the basic tenets of dialectical and historical materialism on the pretext of attacking dogmatism.
In studying dialectical materialism, Yugoslav philosophers have focused on dialectics and the categories of dialectical logic (B. Šešić, V. Rus), the history of dialectic (G. Zaječaranović, J. Iosifovski), and scientific logic and methodology (M. Markovic, A. Kron, and S. Novaković). Problems of historical materialism have been elucidated by L. Živković. The history of philosophy has been studied by D. Nedeljković, A. Stojković, D. Leković, and M. Filipović. Philosophical questions relating to science have been investigated by B. Petrović, L. Grdenić, and J. Pop Jordanov. Yet other philosophers are working on questions of ethics (V. Pavićević, A. Tanović), aesthetics (D. Jeremić, I. Foht), and scientific atheism (B. Bošnjak, E. Ćimić).
Studies in philosophy are conducted at philosophy institutes and in the philosophy departments of the universities of Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Skopje, Sarajevo, Zadar, and Novi Sad. A philosophical society has been founded. The journal Filosofija has appeared since 1957 and Dialectica since 1947.
SOCIOLOGY. Founded by Vuk Karadžić, Yugoslav sociology was initially developed by Baljtazar Bogišić, who worked out a typology of the traditional rural family. The first sociology course was offered at the University of Zagreb in 1906, and from 1918 to 1941 formal sociology was taught at the universities. After the founding of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, a Marxist-Leninist trend emerged in sociology under the influence of V. I. Lenin’s ideas. F. Filipović undertook to systematize sociology as a science from a Marxist perspective, and V. Masleša studied the workers’ and national movements in Yugoslavia and the agrarian question. After World War II sociology developed rapidly.
Yugoslav sociologists have concentrated on methodological problems of sociology (J. Goričar, B. Ziherl, R. Lukić, O. Mandić, V. Milić, A. Fiamengo), the history of sociology (Milić, M. Djurić), the social structure of society (M. Popović, M. Pečujlić, S. Šuvar, S. Pulišević), problems of urbanization and industrial sociology (A. Todorović, D. Stefanović, D. Čalić, M. Radovanović), rural sociology (S. Vukosavljević, C. Kostić, P. Marković, M. Macura, V. Puliz), problems of youth and education (M. Broćić, S. Flere, V. Tomanović, D. Kuzmanović, P. Georgievski), the sociology of the family (O. Burić, M. Mladenović, Z. Grebo, R. First, Z. Purić), and the mass media and public opinion (F. Džinić, M. Nuhić, A. Barbič, D. Pantić).
In the late 1950’s and the 1960’s there were sharp debates over the subject matter of sociology and the relationship between sociology and historical materialism. Such sociologists as R. Supek, Djurić, and Z. Pešić-Golubović called for a “new version” of Marxist sociology, proposing to supplement Marxism with bourgeois sociological concepts. They were opposed by sociologists who defended the Marxist-Leninist methodology, among them Živković, Ziherl, S. Kosanović, and V. Rašković.
Studies in sociology are conducted at the Institute of Social Sciences in Belgrade and at republic institutes of sociology. The leading professional organization is the Sociological Society. Research is published in the journals Sociologija (since 1959) and Sociologiski pregled (since 1964).
REFERENCESIstoriia filosofii, vols. 2, 4–5. Moscow, 1957–61.
Filozofi. Novi Sad-Belgrade, 1966.
Stojković, A. Razvitak filosofije u Srba 1804–1944. Belgrade, 1972.
In the period of developed feudalism (12th to 15th centuries) annals, biographies, and other historical works were produced. A noteworthy example of medieval historiography is the Chronicle of the Presbyter of Dioclea, also called the Bar Genealogy, whose narrative extends down to the mid-12th century. The anonymous author advocates the creation of a united Croatian-Dioclean kingdom, bolstering the “rights” of the Dioclean kings by the “Gothic” theory of the origin of the Slavs. The chronicle of Thomas of Split (1266) was written from the perspective of the Roman Catholic clergy and the patricians of the Dalmatian cities.
The rise and expansion of the Serbian Nemanja state engendered a number of biographies of Serbian rulers, written in the 13th to 15th centuries, that mirrored the political theories of feudal dynasties and secular and ecclesiastical lords. Several biographies, notably that of Stefan Lazarević, written in 1431 by Constantine the Philosopher, exerted a great influence on the Russian Chronography, which in turn became the source for later Serbian chronographies. Appearing in the second half of the 14th century, Serbian genealogies and chronicles circulated widely in the period of Ottoman oppression (15th to early 19th centuries). The historical works produced in the 14th and 15th centuries in the Dalmatian cities and the Slovene lands were written in Latin and German and dealt for the most part with local events. The most important were the anonymous works of Zadar inhabitants, the writings of P. de Paulo, and J. Unrest’s Carinthian Chronicle.
The imposition of foreign rule—Ottoman, Austrian, and Venetian—throughout the South Slavic lands (excluding Dubrovnik) largely determined the fate of historiography in the 16th to 18th centuries. Only a few Serbian chronicles and genealogies survived in the Ottoman possessions. The humanistic historiography that developed in Dubrovnik, in Venetian Dalmatia, and to a lesser extent in the Slovene lands in the 16th century tended to focus on the question of the origin of the Slavs and on the idea of Slavic unity. Its leading exponents were the Dubrovnik scholars L. Tuberon Crijević, M. Orbini, and S. Razzi, the Dalmatians M. Marulić and V. Pribojević (On the Origin and Achievements of the Slavs, 1525), and the Slovene chroniclers M. Christalnik. Seventeenth-century historical writing, influenced by the French “erudites,” frequently regional in scope, and harking back to medieval annalistic traditions, is best represented by I. Lucić’s On the Kingdom of Dalmatia and Croatia (1666) and the works of Dj. Branković, P. Ritter Vitezović, and the Slovene historians I. Valvasor, and J. Schönleben.
During the Age of Enlightenment, coinciding with an upsurge in the national liberation movement of the peoples of Yugoslavia, historiography was colored by Enlightenment ideas, and its patriotic tendencies influenced the development of national self-awareness. The most important 18th-century historians were the Serbs J. Rajić, P. Julinac, and Z. Orfelin, the Croats B. Krcelic and S. Resti, and the Slovene A. Linhart. A romantic trend emerged in Serbian and Montenegrin historial writing, as illustrated by A History of Montenegro (1754) by V. Petrović and the Tronoški Rodoslav. In Bosnia, 18th-century historiography was represented by Muslim chronicles and the works of F. Lastrić.
The national liberation movement of the Yugoslav peoples in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the formation of an independent Serbian state, and the recognition of Montenegro’s independence gave impetus to the development of historical scholarship among the peoples of Yugoslavia. The first learned societies were founded: the Society of Serbian Literature (1842, Belgrade) and the Society of Yugoslav History and Antiquities (1850, Zagreb), which published the Archives of Yugoslav History from 1851 to 1875. Historical research was also promoted by the Serbian Learned Society (1864), the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (1867, Zagreb), and the Serbian Royal Academy (1886, Belgrade). This period saw the emergence of new schools of bourgeois historiography, the large-scale publication of historical sources and accumulation of material for comprehensive surveys of the history of the various Yugoslav peoples, an attack on romantic historiography by scholars of the historicocritical school (primarily in Serbian and Montenegrin scholarship), and the growing influence of positivism. The leading bourgeois historians of the 19th and early 20th centuries were the Serbs V. S. Karadžić, I. Ruvarac, and S. Novaković, the Croats F. Rački, I. Kukuljević Sakcinski, T. Smičiklas, and V. Klaić, and the Slovenes A. Kaspret and F. Kos. The revolutionary-democratic school of historical writing was founded by S. Marković, Ž. Žujović, and V. Pelagić.
From 1918 to 1941 Yugoslav historical scholarship was dominated by the nationalistic historiography of V. Corović and S. Stanojević. Important works in medieval history were written by the Croat F. Šišić and the Slovene M. Kos. New research centers were organized in the interwar period, among them the Yugoslav Historical Society, founded in 1927, and the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts, established in Ljubljana in 1938. Both regional and national history journals were founded, such as the Jugoslovenski istorijski časopis (1935–39). Marxist historiography developed in the works of A. Cesarec, O. Prica, F. Filipović, V. Masleša, and E. Kardelj.
After the victory of the socialist revolution in Yugoslavia, comprehensive works were written on the history of all the peoples of Yugoslavia, as well as on individual republics and cities. Especially noteworthy are the History of the Yugoslav People (vols. 1–2, 1953–60) and the histories of Montenegro, Macedonia, Belgrade, and Split. Yugoslav historians embarked on a close study of modern and contemporary history, the workers’ and socialist movements, and the country’s National Liberation War. They also undertook the publication of numerous 20th-century sources. New centers of scholarship, academies of sciences and arts, were founded in Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro. A Soviet-Yugoslav Commission of Historians was created in 1974. Soviet and Yugoslav historians have collaborated in writing The Participation of Yugoslav Workers in the October Revolution and Civil War in the USSR (1976).
The leading Yugoslav historians are R. Petrović and N. Babić in Bosnia-Hercegovina, M. Apostolski and D. Zografski in Macedonia, V. Čubrilović and D. Janković in Serbia, B. Grafenauer and F. Gestrin in Slovenia, G. Novak and Ja. Šidak in Croatia, and B. Pavićević in Montenegro. Historical research is flourishing in the universities, in the academies of sciences and arts of the socialist republics, and in historical institutes, societies, and museums. Of the more than 170 historical periodicals published in 1976, the most important were Jugoslovenski istorijski časopis (since 1962), Istorijski časopis (since 1949), Istorijski zapisi (since 1948), Glasnik na institutot za nacionalna istorija (since 1957), Historijski zbornik (since 1948), and Zgodovinski časopis (since 1947).
As a result of unfavorable historical circumstances—fragmentation and foreign domination—economic scholarship in the Yugoslav lands stagnated for a long time. It was not until the 1860’s that economic thought began to revive. The first textbook on political economy was published in 1861, and the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the publication of works by the bourgeois economists F. Vrbanić, B. Lorković, M. Zoričić, K. Stojanović, and M. Savić. These writers did not advance original ideas but subscribed wholeheartedly to the theories of Austrian, German, and French bourgeois economists.
A major contribution to the development of economics was made by the revolutionary democrats, notably Ž. Žujović, S. Marković, V. Pelagić, and A. Banković. Žujović was the first Yugoslav revolutionary democrat to link national liberation to social liberation. He was an ardent champion of socialism and a critic of capitalism. Denouncing wage slavery from the standpoint of the labor theory of value, Žujović rejected capitalism in favor of a more just social order based on the association of producers. His definition of political economy was mature for its time, and his recognition of the historical nature of economics enabled him to launch a reasoned attack on bourgeois political economy. Markovic, strongly influenced by N. G. Chernyshevskii’s ideas, argued for the abolition of feudal vestiges by revolutionary means and for a noncapitalist path of development for the Yugoslav lands. The first popularizer and commentator of K. Marx’ works in the Yugoslav lands, Marković nevertheless did not become a genuine Marxist, although on some questions of economic theory his views evolved from revolutionary democratism to Marxism.
R. Dragićević is generally regarded as the first Serbian Marxist. One of the founders of the Serbian Social Democratic Party (1903), D. Tucović, provided the economic underpinnings of its program. Tucović made an important contribution to the development of Marxist economic thought by pointing out the common interests of workers and peasants and by criticizing the law of diminishing returns and the theory of the stability of the small peasant farm.
The formation of a unified Yugoslav state in 1918 promoted the development of bourgeois economics. Among the economists who were strongly influenced by Western European vulgar political economy were N. Vujanović, S. Zečević, H. Sirovatka, E. Petrović, A. Koen, A. Sunarić, and E. Džikovski. A number of economists, including A. Bilimovic and K. Stojanović, subscribed to the views of the Austrian school and the mathematical school. Yet other bourgeois economists, notably R. Bicanic, were attracted to Keynesianism and neoliberalism. Petit bourgeois cooperativism was advocated by J. Krek, M. Avramovic, and F. Trcek. For the most part, the bourgeois economists of the 1920’s and 1930’s worked on practical problems of economic policy. Members of the liberal bourgeoisie called for less dependence on foreign capital (V. Stojković), tighter government regulation of the national economy (O. Frangeš), and a protectionist customs policy (L. Dukanac, S. Obradović). Problems of agricultural economics were studied by V. Bajković, G. Bogić, I. Bratko, D. Jovanović, and D. Krsta. Studies were also done on finance (V. Rozenberg, L. Kostić), statistics (J. Lokatos), and the history of economic thought (M. Mirković).
The October Socialist Revolution in Russia strengthened the Yugoslav workers’ movement, which was led by the Communist Party, founded in 1919. The ruling circles were compelled to permit the translation and publication of the works of K. Marx, F. Engels, and V. I. Lenin. The progressive and workers’ press disseminated the basic tenets of Marxist economic theory, which became the workers’ ideological weapon in their struggle against the bourgeoisie and the military-monarchist dictatorship.
The establishment of a socialist system in Yugoslavia opened the way for the full development of Marxist economic scholarship. The first university economics departments were established, and economics research institutes were organized. The country’s economists united to form the Union of Yugoslav Economists. Since the 1940’s economic research has been directed toward increasing the effectiveness of economic management and the development of the Yugoslav economic system, based on self-management. Discussion has centered on the role of commodity-money relations and the law of value under socialism, on the correlation between planned and market principles in managing the economy, on the place of the enterprise in a system of expanded reproduction, on the levels of making centralized and decentralized decisions, and on the economic role of the state and property under socialism.
Urgent problems relating to the building of socialism have been treated in works by J. Broz Tito, E. Kardelj, V. Bakarić, B. Kidrić, M. Todorović, B. Kraigher, M. Popović, M. Korać, and M. Samardžija. Economists have been studying the political economy of socialism and capitalism (A. Bajt, R. Lang, J. Sirotković, J. Stanovnik, A. Vacić, B. Horvat, I. Maksimović, M. Bešer, K. Mihailović, V. Grivčev, K. Tone) the economics of agriculture (S. Popović, V. Stipetić, P. Marković), finance and credit (I. Perišin, M. Vučković, I. Fabinc), pricing (Z. Pjanić, F. Černe, D. Mesarić), the theory of reproduction (R. Stojanović), industrial economics (I. Vinski, D. Čalić, D. Sabolović), the application of mathematical methods to economics (R. Tomović, M. Sekulić), and demography (M. Macura, D. Breznik, T. Mulina). Other problems that have been studied include the history of the national economy (B. Djurdjević, N. Vučo, I. Jelizović), the history of economic thought (O. Blagojević, B. Šoškić), currency policy (B. Čolanović, J. Smole), and the theory of international economic relations (L. Adamović, Z. Mrkušić).
Economic studies are conducted at the Institute of Economic Research in Zagreb, the Economics Institute in Belgrade, the Institute of International Politics and Economics in Belgrade, and economics research institutes and universities in Belgrade, Skopje, Sarajevo, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Novi Sad, Rijeka, Niš, Split, and Titograd.
The principal economics journals are Ekonomist (since 1948), Ekonomski pregled (since 1950), Ekonomska politika (since 1952), Ekonomski anali (since 1955), Socijalizam (since 1957), Finansije (since 1946), Ekonomika udruženog rada (since 1953), Ekonomska revija (since 1950), and Ekonomska misao (since 1968).
After 1918 bourgeois Yugoslavia had six separate legal systems, those of Croatia-Slovenia, Dalmatia-Slovenia, Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia-Hercegovina. Each system contained elements of Roman, Germanic, Hungarian, Byzantine, Ottoman and canon law. During the 1920’s and 1930’s the country’s legal scholars undertook to codify the laws.
The establishment of people’s power in 1945 heralded a new phase in the development of Yugoslav legal thought. In socialist Yugoslavia, the historical materialist approach to the study of law has been employed in resolving problems of self-management and in improving legislation and the organization and activity of governing bodies. Advances have also been made in comparative legal scholarship. Yugoslav scholars have produced major works on constitutional law (J. Djordjević, J. Stefanović), labor law (A. Bajetić, N. Tintić), criminal law (N. Srzentić), administrative law (I. Krbek, S. Popović), civil law (M. Vuković, M. Stupar), the theory of the state and law (R. Lukić), international law (M. Bartoš), and comparative law (B. Blagojević, J. Stefanović).
The principal research and teaching centers are the law departments of the universities of Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana. A special institute for comparative legal studies was set up in Belgrade in 1955. Legal research is published in journals issued by university law departments and in the legal periodicals Pravni život (since 1952), Pravnik (since 1946), and Zbornik Pravnogfa-kulteta u Zagrebu (since 1948).
In socialist Yugoslavia the social function of linguistics became more important, and the scope of research expanded. Comprehensive works were published on the grammar of Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian: M. Stevanović’s Modern Serbo-Croatian (vols. 1–2, 1964–69) and B. Koneski’s Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language (vols. 1–2, 1952–54). Two important works on the theory and history of literary languages are D. Brozovic’s Standard Language (1970) and P. Ivic’s The Serbian People and Their Language (1971). Studies in the history of language have shown that contacts between the South Slavs and other peoples were an essential factor in linguistic evolution (I. Popović, A History of Serbo-Croatian, Novi Sad, 1955). An important contribution to dialectology has been made by M. Hraste, P. Ivić, B. Vidoeski, and T. Logar. Lexicographic achievements include the completion of a 24-volume historical dictionary of Serbo-Croatian (Zagreb, 1882–1976), a six-volume dictionary of modern literary Serbo-Croatian (Novi Sad, 1967–76), and a three-volume dictionary of Macedonian (Skopje, 1961–66). Publication is under way of a multivolume academic dictionary of Serbo-Croatian (Belgrade, vol. 1, 1959) and a Slovene dictionary (Ljubljana, vol. 1, 1970). The first etymological dictionary of Serbo-Croatian, compiled by P. Skok, was published in four volumes in Zagreb from 1971 to 1974, and F. Bezlaj’s etymological dictionary of Slovene has begun to appear.
Research is organized and directed by the linguistic institutes of the republic academies of sciences and by university linguistic and philological subdepartments. The main periodicals and serial publications are Južnoslovenski filolog (since 1913), Naš jezik (since 1932), Jezik (1938–39 and since 1952), Jezik in slovstvo (since 1955), Slavisticna revija (since 1948), Makedonski jazik (since 1950), Zbornik za filologiju i lingvistiku (since 1957), Srpski dijalektološki zbornik (since 1905), Hrvatski dijalektološki zbornik (since 1956), Suvremena lingvistika (since 1962), and Filologija (since 1957). A bibliography of linguistic research is published in the journal Južnoslovenski filolog.
In 1977 there were about 500 organizationally and financially autonomous scientific research institutions, divided into three groups: independent research organizations (more than 230), scientific institutions affiliated with the academies (35), and the research and development divisions of economic and other organizations of associated labor (more than 200). The first group includes the B. Kidrč Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Vinča (Belgrade), the R. Bočković Nuclear Research Institute in Zagreb, the J. Stefan Nuclear Institute in Ljubljana, the M. Pupin Electronics and Communications Institute in Belgrade, the materials testing institute in Belgrade, the electrical engineering, marine, and lexicography institutes in Zagreb, and the materials testing and automation institutes in Ljubljana. As a result of a reorganization in the 1970’s associations have been formed to promote the development of direct contacts between science and production. The three groups of research organizations referred to above employ some 37,000 persons. University research subdivisions, about 50 in all, constitute a separate category. More than 15,000 specialists with advanced degrees are employed in the country’s scientific institutions. In the 1970’s research and development expenditures averaged 1.1 percent of the annual national income. Much of the research and development is conducted on the basis of self-financing.
International scientific and technical contacts are maintained through the Federal Board for International Cooperation in Science, Education, Culture, and Technology, which in 1977 worked with 110 countries, including 80 developing nations, with the UN and its institutions, and with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Established in 1955, the Soviet-Yugoslav Commission on Scientific and Technical Cooperation became in 1975 a permanent subcommittee of the intergovernmental Soviet-Yugoslav Committee on Economic and Scientific and Technical Cooperation. Joint Soviet-Yugoslav projects have been undertaken in machine building, the chemical industry, ferrous metallurgy, transportation, and agriculture. In 1973 an agreement was signed providing for cooperation between the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Council of Academies of Sciences and Arts of Yugoslavia. Contacts are expanding between the higher educational institutions of the two countries.
In 1977, Yugoslavia had 3,500 newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals with a total circulation of more than 20 million, including 24 dailies with a combined readership exceeding 2 million. Two of the country’s most influential newspapers are the daily Borba (founded Feb. 19, 1922; 1978 circulation, 60,000), published in Serbo-Croatian in Belgrade and Zagreb by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia, and the weekly Komunist (founded 1925; 1978 circulation, 400,000), published in Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, and Macedonian in Belgrade by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (LCY). Another press organ of the LCY is Socijalizam, a monthly magazine issued in Serbo-Croatian in Belgrade since 1958 (circulation, 10,000).
The leading republic dailies are the Serbo-Croatian Vjesnik (circulation, 88,000), founded in 1940 and published in Zagreb by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Croatia; the Slovene Delo (circulation, 93,000), published in Ljubljana since 1959 by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Slovenia; the Macedonian Nova Makedonija (circulation, 26,000), founded in 1944 and published in Skopje by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Macedonia; the Serbo-Croatian Oslobodjenje (circulation, 79,000), founded in 1943 and published in Sarajevo by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Bosnia-Hercegovina; and the Serbo-Croatian Pobjeda (circulation, 13,000), founded in 1943 and published in Titograd by the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Montenegro.
Another popular newspaper is the Serbo-Croatian daily Politika (circulation, 272,000), published in Belgrade since 1904. The Serbo-Croatian weekly magazine Mladost (circulation, 96,000), published in Belgrade since 1919, is the press organ of the Socialist Youth League of Yugoslavia, and the Serbo-Croatian weekly newspaper Rad (circulation, 110,000), published in Belgrade since 1945, is the organ of the Confederation of Trade Unions of Yugoslavia. The Serbo-Croatian weekly magazine Ekonomska Politika (circulation, 10,500) has been published in Belgrade since 1952 by the Borba publishing enterprise.
The country’s news agency, the New Yugoslavia Telegraph Agency (TANJUG), was founded on Nov. 5, 1943. Radio broadcasting was initiated in 1926. Yugoslav Radio and Television, founded in November 1944 and reorganized in 1952, coordinates the operation of the republic and province radio and television studios. Domestic radio broadcasts are conducted in Serbo-Croatian, Slovene; Macedonian, Italian, Turkish, and Rumanian. Foreign broadcasts are transmitted by Radio Yugoslavia in Albanian, English, Arabic, Bulgarian, Greek, Spanish, German, Russian, and French. Television broadcasting was inaugurated in 1958. The broadcasting system includes 189 radio stations and 62 television stations.
I. N. LOBASHEVA
The ethnic and linguistic kinship of the Yugoslav peoples, as well as the similarity of their historical and cultural destinies, ensured many common patterns in their development and an interaction between their national literatures. At the same time, the substantial differences in the history, socioeconomic system, religious beliefs, and literary traditions of these peoples determined the specific characteristics and unevenness of their literary evolution. (See the section Literature in MACEDONIA, SERBIA, SLOVENIA, CROATIA, and MONTENEGRO.)
After 1918 the Yugoslav literatures developed within a united country. Despite national conflicts and the continuing socioeconomic and political inequality of the various peoples in monarchist Yugoslavia, state unification promoted closer contacts among the national literatures. In the interwar period the Yugoslav literatures passed through two phases, the first of which ended in the early 1930’s. An important factor was the emergence of a countrywide revolutionary literary movement.
After World War I the nation’s creative intelligentsia sought to draw lessons from the war and to come to terms with the October Revolution in Russia, revolutionary events at home and abroad, and the creation of a unified Yugoslav state. Yugoslav writers diverged on these issues, but the numerous literary groups that sprang up in the postwar years were united by their condemnation of imperialist war, their disillusionment with bourgeois civilization, and their nihilist attitude toward their literary predecessors. Nonrealistic styles prevailed, although the intensive quest for a social and aesthetic ideal promoted differentiation not only among literary trends but also within them.
The dominant literary movement was expressionism, in which three ideological trends emerged. The works of the expressionists A. B. Šimić (1898–1925), T. Ujević (1891–1955), M. Jare (1900–42), M. Crnjanski (1893–1977), and R. Drainac (1899–1943) reflected an anarcho-individualist rebellion against war, bourgeois morality, and the coercion of the individual, and they showed the tragic fate of the man who is incapable of fighting to change society. These writers conveyed the tensions of their era, introduced a new type of verse (Šimić) whose unifying principle was “rhythmic melody” (intonation), and developed the lyrical novel (Crnjanski). Another expressionist trend did not sever its ties with symbolism and impressionism and showed a predilection for mysticism, bolstered by the theory of “pure cosmism.” In Slovene and Croatian literatures the leading exponents of this trend were the Catholic poets D. Sudeta (1903–27), N. Šop (born 1904), A. Vodnik (1901–65), and E. Kocbek (born 1904), in whose works religious motifs were reinforced by an “extratemporal” vision. In Serbian literature this trend found expression in hypersensitivity and mythologizing imagery (R. Petrović, 1898–1949).
The revolutionary fervor that gripped Yugoslavia at the end of the second decade gave rise to a left-wing expressionism, linked with the communist movement. This third expressionist trend included the gifted writers A. Cesarec (1893–1941), M. Krleža (born 1893), S. Kosovel (1904–26), T. Seliškar (born 1900), M. Klopčić (born 1905), and B. Kreft (born 1905). The magazines they published—Planten (1919) and Književna republika (1923–27) in Croatia and Mladina (1924–26) and Svobodna mladina (1928, 1929) in Slovenia—disseminated revolutionary ideas and acquainted readers with Soviet Russian culture and European revolutionary art. In Slovene literature, the leading genre was poetry, in which a quest for new artistic forms did not detract from a profound concern with vital issues (Kosovel). In Croatian literature, prose and drama flourished alongside poetry. The works of the left-wing expressionists, ideologically resonant and artistically mature, largely determined the literary atmosphere of those years. Expressionism disappeared as a trend in the second half of the 1920’s, although its stylistic traits continued to be used in depicting man’s inner world and spontaneous popular movements.
During the 1920’s the realist school was represented chiefly by such writers of the older generation as V. Petrovic (1884–1967), I. Sekulić (1877–1958), F. Bevk (1890–1970), O. Župančič (1878–1949), and V. Car Emin (1870–1963). The appearance of the young writers S. Kolar (1891–1963) and Desanka Maksimovic (born 1898) and the espousal of realism by some former expressionists, notably I. Andrić (1892–1975), Cesarec, Krleža, and Kreft, shifted the balance of literary forces in favor of realism in the early 1930’s.
Surrealism was briefly popular in Serbia in the late 1920’s, disintegrating as a literary trend in the early 1930’s. Among the writers who clung to nonrealist styles were the playwrights M. Begovic (1876–1948) and J. Kulundzic (1899–1970) and the poets Drainac, Ujević, and Jare. Despite the differences in their world outlook, the realist writers of the 1930’s produced works marked by more acute social analysis, stronger criticism of the bourgeoisie, and a growing interest in spontaneous resistance by the working people. Although the peasant theme remained central to the works of such writers as Bevk, Kolar, and Petrovic, the realist writers increasingly portrayed other aspects of contemporary reality. The social contrasts of urban life were depicted by B. Cosic (1903–34), and the world of intimate feelings evoked by G. Krklec (1899–1977), D. Cesaric (born 1902), and Maksimovic was infused with civic and social concerns. In his novellas and short stories Andrić sought to give philosophical meaning to history and to the fate of people caught up in the whirlpool of historical events. Krleža’s sociopsychological novels The Return of Filip Latinovic (1932), At the Edge of Reason (1938), and Banquet in Blitva (books 1–2, 1938–39) and his dramatic trilogy about the Glembaj family (1928–32) contain harsh criticism of bourgeois Yugoslavia and show the dictatorial regime’s corrupting influence on the individual. The comedies of B. Nušić (1864–1938), whose scathing ridicule of the stupidity and malice of the petite bourgeoisie sometimes verged on political satire, brought Yugoslav drama to the attention of the world. Among his most famous plays are Madame Minister (1929), Mister Dollar (1932), The Doctor (1936), and The Deceased (1937). The artistic level of literature rose considerably. The epic quality inherent in the realism of the past was replaced by a heightened perception of the meaning of individual experience. The introduction of philosophical themes fostered lyrical, essayistic, and publicistic tendencies in literature and transformed the epic genres.
The evolution of all the national literatures of Yugoslavia was greatly influenced by the emergence in the late 1920’s of a countrywide revolutionary literary movement, whose forces were united by the magazines Literatura (1931–33) and Kultura (1933) in Zagreb, Nova literatura (1928–31) and Stožer (1930–35) in Belgrade, and Književnost (1932–35) in Ljubljana. The revolutionary literature of Yugoslavia passed through two phases: a “social literature” phase, which lasted from the late 1920’s to the mid-1930’s, and a “social realism” phase, which began in the mid-1930’s. Although the first phase lacked ideological and artistic unity and did not produce any significant works, it played an enormous role in forming a broad front of revolutionary art. Its writers introduced new themes associated with the life and struggle of the working class in such works as the Comrades’ Book (1929), an anthology of Serbian, Slovene, and Croatian poetry.
The weaknesses of social literature were acknowledged even by its adherents. The Marxist critics B. Ziherl (1910–76), Dj. Jovanović (1909–43), O. Kersovani (1902–41), and O. Prica (1899–1941), as well as the writers R. Zogović (born 1907), Kreft, and J. Popovic (1905–52), urged writers to broaden their horizons and sought to transform social literature into proletarian realism. A major role in the ideological and artistic maturation of the revolutionary writers was played by the magazines Naša stvarnost (1936–39), Miada kultura (1939–40), and Umetnost i kritika (1939) in Belgrade, Sodobnost (1935—41) in Ljubljana, and Izraz (1939–40) in Zagreb, as well as the Nolit Publishing House in Belgrade.
The most important literary achievements of the 1930’s were linked with social realism. The social realists not only perfected the prose genres but also created such new prose forms as the “collective novel,” portraying the life of an entire social group, and the sociopolitical novel. Some of the finest sociopolitical novels were written by Prežihov Voranc (1893–1950) and H. Kikić (1905—42). Outstanding social realist prose works were produced by the Slovene writers Prežihov Voranc, M. Kranjec (born 1908), C. Kosmač (born 1910), A. Ingolič (born 1907) and I. Potrč (born 1913). The poetry genres flourished in Serbian, Macedonian, and Montenegrin literature, represented by Č. Minderovic, (1912–66), Popović, K. Racin (1908–43), and K. Nedelkovski (1912–41). Social realist drama reached a high level in Slovene and Croatian literature, notably the plays of Kreft, M. Matkovic (born 1915), and M. Feldman (1899–1976). Social realism expanded the creative potential of writers by heightening their awareness of historical development, of man’s ability to transform the world, and of his spiritual rebirth in the struggle to liberate the oppressed. It exerted a democratizing influence on all Yugoslav literature, furthering the unification of progressive literary forces in the face of the fascist threat.
Many writers took part in the National Liberation War (1941–45). The literature that originated among the partisans and in the liberated areas drew on the achievements of social realism, on folkloric and romantic traditions, and on the experience of Soviet literature. The works of such Soviet authors as A. Tolstoy, N. Ostrovskii, and I. Ehrenburg were widely read. Poetry, the leading genre, had brilliant exponents in V. Nazor (1876–1949), M. Bor (born 1913), K. Destovnik-Kajuh (1922–44), and S. Kulenovic (1910–78). The narrative poem The Pit by I. G. Kovačić (1913–13), written in 1943 and published posthumously on liberated territory in 1944, became internationally famous. Also popular were the sketches and short stories of B. Ćopić (born 1915), Popović, and I. Dončević (born 1909) and the plays of M. Božić (born 1919) and Klopčić. Many works written in these years were published only at the end of the war. The most important literary event of 1945 was the appearance of Andric’s sociopsychological novels Bridge on the Drina and Bosnian Chronicle (Nobel Prize, 1961), giving a philosophical interpretation of human destiny in the context of five centuries of Bosnian history.
After the establishment of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, each of its nationalities and ethnic groups had an equal opportunity to develop its national culture. In each republic writers’ associations were organized, and literary journals were founded, among them Naša književnost (1946, since 1947 Književnost), Savremenik (1955), and Delo (1955) in Belgrade; Izraz (1957) in Sarajevo; Stvaranje, founded in 1946 in Cetinje and published in Titograd since 1963; Naša sodobnost (1953, since 1963 Sodobnost) in Ljubljana; and Savremenost (1953) in Skopje. The Yugoslav Writers’ Union was formed.
From 1945 to the early 1950’s the traditions of social realism were adapted to the new conditions. The national liberation struggle and the revolution were recurrent themes not only during the first postwar years but, with variations in ideological and aesthetic treatment, dominated the literary output of the next three decades. The leading genres continued to be poetry, the sketch and short story, frequently of a documentary nature, and short dramatic works. The development of the strong, active personality through the struggle against fascism and the individual’s participation in the destiny of a nation were portrayed in a realistic or romantic vein or sometimes a blend of the two styles. The gamut of poetic styles ranged from the aphoristic (Ju. Kaštelan, born 1919) to the melodious (D. Kostić, born 1917) or intimately lyrical (G. Vitez, 1911–66). Poetic language acquired a greater semantic precision in such works as Verses From the Diary of Prisoner No. 60211, written by M. Dedinac (1902–66) in a concentration camp and published in 1947.
In the mid-1950’s the novel was revived in many forms, conventionally known as the panoramic, chronicle-documentary, sociopsychological, ballad-novel, and parable-novel. Some of the finest novels were produced by writers who had begun their careers in the mainstream of social realism or who had experienced its direct influence, writers such as Kosmač, Kranjec, Ingolič, Potrč, Copić, Dončević, M. Lalić (born 1914), and O. Davičo (born 1909). The civic traditions of realist literature were developed by B. Zupančić (born 1925), Božić, D. Ćosić (born 1921), S. Novak (born 1924), and S. Janevski (born 1920). These writers dealt chiefly with the antifascist struggle and life in prewar and contemporary Yugoslavia.
The second half of the 1950’s saw a growing tendency toward introspection, which had manifested itself as early as the late 1940’s in the works of P. Šegedin (born 1909) and Kocbek. Surrealism was revived by Davičo and M. Ristić (born 1902). During the 1960’s the influence of existentialism was perceptible in the works of such writers as A. Hieng (born 1925), D. Šmole (born 1919), A. Soljan (born 1932), D. Kiš (born 1935), B. Šepanović (born 1937), and Ž. Čingo (born 1936), all of whom were drawn to universal moral-philosophical and subjective-psychological themes. Writers again favored small genres, a lyrical “confessional” style of narration, and complex associative imagery.
After a brief period of “intimism” during the mid-1950’s, when nature and love lyrics were cultivated, Yugoslav poets became obsessed with expressionism, surrealism, and various kinds of formal experimentation. An “abstract intellectualism” marked the poems of B. Milković (1934–61), G. Strniša (born 1930), T. Šalamun (born 1941), V. Popa (born 1922), S. Mihalić (born 1928), and V. Urošević (born 1934). All this essentially inaccessible, hermetic poetry shared a preoccupation with death, alienation, the meaninglessness of life, and solitude. During these years realist traditions were kept alive by such prominent prose writers as Čopić, E. Koš (born 1913), B. Koneski (born 1921), Kranjec and Kosmač and by the poets Maksimović, Zogović, S. Raičković (born 1928), Vesna Parun (born 1922), and J. Menart (born 1929).
The late 1960’s and early 1970’s witnessed a revival of naturalist tendencies and a return to realism. Writers chose large prose forms to portray the life of their people at crucial historical moments. Outstanding novels of these years include Krleža’s epic The Banners (vols. 1–5, 1963–69), Lalić’s Wartime Happiness (1973) and Champions (1976), D. Čosić’s Time of Death (vols. 1–3, 1972–75), and M. Kranjec’s My Uncles Told Me (1975). Moral and ethical problems of contemporary life were explored by Zupančič, V. Kuzmanović (1930–76), D. Mihailović (born 1930), M. Marković (born 1934), Z. Majdak (born 1938), and M. Kapor (born 1937).
After 1945 drama developed less vigorously than the other literary genres, but it exhibited the same tendencies. Influenced by a variety of philosophical and aesthetic concepts, the leading playwrights of the 1960’s—Matković, Smole, and V. Lukić (born 1936)—showed a predilection for allegory and classical and historical plots, placing dramatic conflicts in a conventional temporal and spatial setting. In contrast, the plays of the 1970’s, notably those of K. Čašule (born 1921), F. Hadžić (born 1922), and Ž. Komanin (born 1935), tended to raise moral and philosophical issues of modern life.
Yugoslav literary criticism has evolved in the course of sharp conflicts between diverse aesthetic and ideological views. Its democratic traditions have been developed by V. Gligorić (1899–1977), M. Bogdanović (1892–1964), V. Masleša (1906–43), I. Brnčić (1912–43), J. Vidmar (born 1895), D. Mitrev (1919–76), M. Jurković (1906–66), and D. Jeremić (born 1925).
REFERENCESZarubezhnye slavianskie literatury XX v. Moscow, 1970.
Kravtsov, N. I. “Sovremennyi iugoslavskii roman.” In Roman v sovremennykh literaturakh iuzhnykh i zapadnykh slavian. [Moscow] 1973.
Romanenko, A. “Sveriaia proshloe s budushchim.” In Literaturnoe obozrenie, 1975, no. 11.
Il’ina, G. Ia. “Vremia romana (o romane-epopee v literaturakh Iugoslavii).” In Novye iavleniia v literature evropeiskikh sotsialisticheskikhstran. Moscow, 1976.
Detskaia literatura, 1977, no. 6. (Issue devoted to Yugoslav children’s literature.)
Barac, A. Jugoslavenska književnost. Zagreb, 1954.
Savković, M. Jugoslovenska književnost, 2nd ed. Belgrade, 1956.
Ravbar, M., and S. Janež. Pregled jugoslovanskih književnosti. Maribor, 1960.
Badalić, J. Russkie pisateli v Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from Croatian.)
Marković, S. Knjizevni pokreti i tokovi izmedju dva svetska rata. Belgrade, 1970.
Jugoslovenski književni leksikon. [Novi Sad] 1971.
Among the oldest artistic objects discovered in Yugoslavia are Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery and sculpture and artifacts produced by the Illyrians (Vače and Trebenište) and Celts. Along the Adriatic coast lie the ruins of ancient cities (Pula, Salona) with amphitheaters, temples, and palaces, of which the most famous is Diocletian’s palace in Split. Examples of early Christian and Byzantine architecture include a sixth-century basilica adorned with mosaics at Poreć and the ruins of Caričin Grad. Archaeological excavations have also unearthed works of ancient Slavic art. The medieval culture of Slovenia and Croatia developed in contact with Central Europe. In medieval Macedonia, Serbia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, and Montenegro, Central European influences mingled with Byzantine traditions. The Adriatic coast came under the influence of Venetian culture.
The churches built in Slovenia and Croatia between the ninth and 13th centuries were initially pre-Romanesque rotundas (Church of St. Donat in Zadar) and later Romanesque basilicas (Zadar, Kostanjevica, Maribor). The Gothic style flourished here from the 13th to the 16th century both in church architecture (Šibenik, Zagreb, Maribor, Ptujska Gora) and in the design of fortified cities and castles. In the 15th and 16th centuries Renaissance features were incorporated into the buildings of the architect Juraj Dalmatinac (Šibenik, Dubrovnik) and into the town halls, palaces, and castles erected in Ljubljana, Maribor, Celje, Koper, and the Dalmatian cities. The baroque style prevailed in the 17th and 18th centuries; noteworthy examples include the buildings designed by G. Maček in Ljubljana and the palaces and churches in Zagreb and Dubrovnik.
The Romanesque art of Slovenia and Croatia is best exemplified in the carved doors of the Cathedral in Split (1214, Andrija Buvina) and the reliefs on the portal of the Cathedral in Trogir (1240, Radovan), reminiscent of Late Greco-Roman art. In the wall paintings of the 14th to 16th centuries the influence of Czech and German Gothic art, visible in the frescoes of Johannes Aquila in the church at Martjanci, was modified by Italian Renaissance features, as illustrated by the frescoes at Visoko by the painter Janez of Ljubljana and those at Sveti Primož-nad-Kamnikom. In the Adriatic cities, Renaissance art reached a high level in the icons of N. Božidarević and M. Hamzić and in the sculpture of Juraj Dalmatinac, Nikola Firentinac, and Andrija Aleši. The leading baroque artists were the sculptor F. Robba and the painters F. Jelovšk and F. Bergant in Slovenia and the painter F. Benković in Croatia.
In medieval Serbia, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Hercegovina, Byzantine artistic traditions were modified in a unique way by local masters. Basilican churches (Saint Sophia’s Church in Ohrid, 11th century) and single-aisled churches (Studenica Monastery, 12th century) gave way to cruciform domed churches in the 13th and 14th centuries (Church of St. Kliment in Ohrid; church of the Gračanica Monastery) and to three-apse churches in the 15th century (Kalenić Monastery), frequently decorated with handsome patterned brickwork and ornamental ceramic insets. In the 14th and 15th centuries, fortresses (Maglić, Smederevo) and fortified monasteries (Manasija, Dečani) were built.
Modeled on Byzantine prototypes, Macedonian wall paintings were remarkable for their dramatic intensity (Church of St. Pantelemon in Nerezi, 12th century), whereas the Serbian frescoes were distinguished by spirituality and lyrical clarity (church of the Sopoćani Monastery, c. 1265). Narrative and decorative traits became more pronounced in the paintings of the 15th to 17th centuries. Sculpture was poorly developed; the simple and naïvely expressive carved ornamentation on 13th- and 14th-century Serbian buildings resembled Romanesque plastic art. Woodcarving flourished in Macedonia. The unusual stećak tombstones, adorned with bas-relief figures and handsome ornamentation, were indigenous to Bosnia-Hercegovina and Montenegro.
After the Turkish conquests, which lasted from the late 14th to the second half of the 15th centuries, construction was sharply curtailed in Macedonia, Serbia, and Bosnia-Hercegovina. Mosques, minarets, and caravansaries were built in the cities. The “Balkan house,” with blind stucco walls and an overhanging upper story, became the typical dwelling. In art the traditions of late Byzantine culture were carried on down to the 18th century.
At the beginning of the 19th century secular art, primarily portraiture, began to develop in all the Yugoslav lands. The leading painters—V. Karas in Croatia, K. Ivanović and K. Danil in Serbia, and M. Langus and J. Tominc in Slovenia—were influenced by both the Biedermeier style and romantic trends. The enlightenment and national liberation movements of the mid-19th century stimulated historical and landscape painting, whose blend of romanticism and realism is best exemplified in the works of the Serbian artists D. Abramović, Dj. Krstić, and Dj. Jakšić. In the 1870’s and 1880’s realist genre painting came into vogue; among the finest achievements of this period were the plein air works of the brothers Janez Šubic and Jurij Šubic in Slovenia and the scenes from folk life of U. Predić and N. Mašić in Serbia and Croatia. An academic style was cultivated by P. Jovanović. At the turn of the century many painters were attracted to contemporary European art movements in their quest for new means of artistic expression. A democratic outlook marked the works of the Slovene impressionists I. Grohar, M. Sternen, R. Jakopic, and M. Jama. The Serbian painter N. Petrović and the Croatian artists M. Kraljević and J. Račić employed postimpressionist techniques in their portraits, genre scenes, and landscapes.
Sculpture began to develop in the second half of the 19th century, gradually freeing itself from academic canons. The virile, heroic works of I. Meštrović, the foremost Yugoslav sculptor of the early 20th century, are distinguished by a neoclassical monumentality that is sometimes combined with decorative stylization. From the second half of the 19th century many imposing buildings were constructed in both the European eclectic and art nouveau styles, the former represented by the university buildings in Belgrade and Ljubljana and the National Theater in Zagreb.
After the formation of a unified Yugoslav state in 1918, artistic culture developed in a contradictory manner under the bourgeois monarchist regime. The nascent progressive national school of art struggled against academicism and the influence of Western modernist currents. The leading artists of the 1920’s and 1930’s used postimpressionist, cubist, fauvist, and expressionist techniques in their search for a national style. A strong faith in life infused the works of P. Dobrović, M. Konjović, and J. Bijelić in Serbia, M. Milunović in Montenegro, and L. Lićenoski and N. Martinoski in Macedonia. Social criticism was implicit in the paintings of the brothers F. Kralj and T. Kralj in Slovenia. Among those who sought inspiration in the traditions of folk art were K. Hegedušić and the primitivists I. Generalic and M. Virius in Croatia. In the 1930’s the graphic artists Dj. Andrejević-Kun in Serbia, O. Postružnik and M. Detoni in Croatia, and H. Smrekar in Slovenia produced works sharply critical of social conditions. In Serbia a “poetic realism” marked the highly personal landscapes, portraits, and genre scenes of I. Tabakovic, M. Čelebonović, and N. Gvozdenović.
The leading sculptors of the interwar period were Meštrović and his students A. Augustinčić in Croatia and T. Rosandić in Serbia. Whereas some architects of the 1920’s and 1930’s sought to develop a national style (I. Vurnik and J. Plečnik in Slovenia), others were drawn to neoclassicism (V. Kovačić in Croatia) or functionalism (N. Dobrović and D. Brašovan in Serbia and D. Ibler and S. Gombos in Croatia). Many artists who fought in the National Liberation War recorded their experiences in poignant sketches; they included Andrejević-Kun, Postružnik, Detoni, and B. Jakac in Slovenia and I. Mujezinović in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
National realist traditions held sway in the first years of people’s rule. Episodes from national history, the National Liberation War, the building of socialism, and outstanding contemporaries were the subjects of paintings by Andrejević-Kun, G. A. Kos, P. Lubarda, and Mujezinovic and sculptures by Augustinčić, S. Stojanović, B. Kalin, Z. Kalin, and L. Dolinar. Since the late 1950’s formal experimentation has come to dominate Yugoslav art. Abstract and expressionist compositions have been created by the painters M. B. Protić, L. Vozarevic, Lubarda, and E. Murtić and the sculptors D. Džamonja and J. Kratohvil. Surrealism (M. Stančić), op art, kinetic sculpture, and other modernist trends have a wide following. Humanism, vitality, poetic imagery, and metaphorical treatment distinguish the works of artists who have not broken away from representational art. They include the painters L. Vujaklija, F. Mihelič, G. Stupica, and K. Divjak and the sculptors V. Radauš, O. Jančić, D. Tršar, and N. Glid.
Since the late 1940’s notable progress has been made in architecture. After the cities and villages devastated by the fascist occupation forces had been rebuilt, well-planned residential districts were built in Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Split, Rijeka, Novi Sad, Titograd, and other cities. Skopje, the capital of Macedonia, was rebuilt after being destroyed by an earthquake in 1963. Contemporary buildings are noteworthy for the refined simplicity of their facade outlines and for their versatile and functional spatial composition. Outstanding examples include the public centers in New Belgrade, Titovo Uzice, and Revolution Square in Ljubljana. In developing new areas, buildings are carefully blended into the landscape, and local construction materials are used. Among the country’s finest architectural achievements are the health resort complexes on the Adriatic coast. The designs of Dobrović (Serbia), E. Ravnikar (Slovenia), and S. Radević (Montenegro) have been widely acclaimed. Many impressive memorials have been dedicated to those who perished in the struggle against fascism, among them B. Bogdanović’s memorials in Sremska Mitrovica, Mostar, and the village of Jasenovac. The leading professional organization is the Artist’s Union of Yugoslavia.
The most popular folk arts are pottery, woodcarving, artistic weaving, metalworking, and lace-making, each exhibiting local ethnic variations. (See alsoMACEDONIA, SERBIA, SLOVENIA, CROATIA, MONTENEGRO.)
REFERENCESAleshina, L. S., and N. V. Iavorskaia. Iskusstvo Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1966.
Belousov, V. N. Sovremennaia arkhitektura Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1973.
Mai, J. Zgodovina umetnosti pri Slovencih, Hrvatih i Srbih. Ljubljana, 1924.
Kašanin, M. L’Art yougoslave des origines á nos jours. Belgrade, 1939.
Molè, W. Sztuka slowian potudniowych. Wroclaw-Krakow-Warsaw, 1962.
Deroko, A. Spomenici arhitekture IX‒XVIII veka u Jugoslaviji. Belgrade, 1964.
Millet, G., and A. Frolow. La Peinture du Moyen Âge en Yougoslavie, vols. 1–4. Paris, 1954–1969.
[Čelebonović, A.] Savremeno slikarstvo u Jugoslaviji (album). [Zagreb] 1965.
Umetničko blago Jugoslavije. Belgrade, 1974.
The music of the various regions of the country reflects their cultural history (see the section Music in CROATIA, MACEDONIA, MONTENEGRO, SERBIA, and SLOVENIA). The multinational composition of the population and the influence of neighboring musical cultures—German-Austrian classical music, Italian songs, and Oriental, Greco-Roman, and Byzantine music—contributed to the evolution of a great diversity of musical “dialects” and determined the specific traits of national professional music.
The most distinctive folk music may be found in central Yugoslavia and in Montenegro, areas less accessible to external influences. Indigenous folk genres include heroic epic songs, performed to the accompaniment of the gusle, and the song-and-dance form known as the kolo. In the Turkish-dominated areas the development of professional music was retarded from the 15th to the 19th century. In Croatia and Slovenia, where the level of professional music had long been higher, the emergence of national traditions was hindered by Hapsburg rule.
Professional music arose in Slovenia in the 15th century and in Croatia in the 16th century, first in the monasteries of Dalmatia and later in Dubrovnik. Several musicians of the 16th to 18th centuries won European fame, notably J. Gallus, I. Lukačić and I. M. Jarnović. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Ljubljana and Zagreb became major centers of musical life. The Ljubljana Philharmonic Academy, founded in 1701, was one of the oldest such academies in Europe. The city’s Philharmonic Society, established in 1794, opened the first music school in the Balkans in 1816. The Zagreb Musikverein was founded in 1827, and a music school was established under its auspices two years later. Foreign opera companies gave regular performances at the Estates Theater in Ljubljana from 1765 and in Zagreb from 1797. The first Slovene operas were Belin by J. Zupan (c. 1780) and Figaro by J.Novak (1790).
The 19th-century national liberation movement stimulated a cultural revival that produced the first Croatian national operas—V. Lisinskij’s Love and Malice (1846) and Porin (1851, staged 1897)—and led to the founding of an opera theater in Zagreb (1834), the future Croatian National Theater. The national theatrical genre called a play with singing originated in Serbia during the 1840’s. In Serbia and Croatia public musical performances were organized by choral societies, founded in Pančevo in 1838, in Zagreb in 1839, and in Belgrade in 1853; in Slovenia this function was assumed by “reading rooms,” the first of which was established in Ljubljana in 1852. The leading genres were songs and choral works, and the principal composers were F. Livadić and Lisinskij in Croatia, N. Djurković and J. Šlezinger in Serbia, and J. Fleišman, G. Mašek, and K. Mašek in Slovenia.
The upsurge in the national liberation movement in the 1860’s prompted the founding of the Theatrical Society (1867) and Glazbena Matica (1872) in Slovenia; music schools in Ljubljana (1882) and Belgrade (1899, now the Mokranjac State Music School); the National Theater in Belgrade (1868); an opera company at the Croatian National Theater (1870, moved to a new building in 1895); and an opera company at the Slovene National Theater (1892). Among the numerous choral societies were workers’ societies, founded in Kragujevac in 1876 and in Belgrade in 1880, the latter subsequently called the Abrašević Society. Eminent composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries included K. Stanković, J. Marinković, S. Mokranjac (the founder of Serbian classical music), I. Zajc, and D. Jenko. The Slovene Philharmonic Society was founded in 1908. In Belgrade opera productions and orchestral concerts were directed by S. Binički, the composer of the first Serbian opera, At Dawn (1903).
The union of the Yugoslav peoples into a single state promoted their cultural development, including a resurgence of musical activity. Three advanced music schools were established: the Zagreb Conservatory (1916, Music Academy from 1922), the Ljubljana Conservatory (1919, Music Academy from 1939), and the Belgrade Music Academy (1937). Secondary music schools were founded in Sarajevo (1920), Banja Luka (1934), Skopje (1934), Cetinje (1929), and Podgorica (now Titograd, 1937), and choral societies were organized in all the major cities. Music theaters operated in Belgrade (from 1920), Zagreb, and Ljubljana, and opera productions were staged in Sarajevo (from 1929) and Skopje (from 1936). Philharmonic orchestras were organized in Zagreb (1920), Belgrade (1923), Sarajevo (1923), and Ljubljana (1936), and quartets and trios were formed in Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana. Choral works were performed by the Obiliĉ, Stankovic, Kolo, and Ljubljana Bell societies.
In the 1920’s and 1930’s national schools of composition arose in the developed regions, and professional music emerged elsewhere. Eminent composers included P. Konjović, M. Milojević, and S. Hristic in Serbia; K. Baranović, J. Gotovać, and J. Slavenski in Croatia; M. Kogoj, S. Osterc, and M. Bravnicar in Slovenia; F. Maćejovski and V. Milošević in Bosnia-Hercegovina; Ž. Firfov, T. Skalovski, and T. Prokopiev in Macedonia; and A. Ivanovic in Montenegro. P. Markovac and V. Vučković came to prominence in the late 1930’s as the first Yugoslav musicians to study the aesthetics, sociology, and history of music from a Marxist perspective. Both of these versatile musicians perished during the fascist occupation. World War II interrupted the development of Yugoslavia’s musical culture; musicians who took part in the national liberation struggle composed mass choral songs.
After the country’s liberation music organizations, ensembles, and schools were founded in all the major cities. The Composers’ Union of Yugoslavia was organized in 1950, along with republic musicians’ unions. Today, all the major cities have music theaters. Performances are regularly given by radio and philharmonic orchestras, the Chorus and Orchestra of the Yugoslav National Army Hall in Belgrade, and chamber instrumental ensembles, of which the most famous is I Solisti di Zagreb. Folk song and dance ensembles (Kolo, Lado, Tanec, Oro, Šota) and choral groups have been formed in all the republics. The international Dubrovnik Summer Festival has been held since 1950 and the Zagreb Biennial since 1961. The leading music magazines are Zvuk, Slovenska glazbena revija, and Muiika i škola.
Eminent contemporary composers include M. Ristić, S. Rajičić, and D. Radić in Serbia; N. Devčić, I. Brkanović, and M. Kelemen in Croatia; M. Kozina, P. Ramovš, and D. Švara in Slovenia; B. Ivanovski, V. Nikolovski, and T. Zografski in Macedonia; and D. Škerl in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Important work in musicology is being done by J. Andreis (Croatia), S. Djurić-Klajn (Serbia), and D. Cvetko (Slovenia).
Famous performing musicians include the conductors O. Danon, Ž. Zdravković, D. Žebre, S. Hubad, M. Bašić, and M. Horvat; the singers M. Čangalovic, B. Cvejić, V. Hejbal, V. Ruždjak, L. Korošec, V. Bukovec, R. Bakočević, and M. Stojanović; the pianists D. Trbojević, A. Preger, Z. Marasovic, I. Maček, J. Murai, and B. Musulin; and the violinists I. Ozim, K. Rupel, V. Marković, and I. Pinkava.
REFERENCESAsaf ev, B. “Iz oblasti iugoslavianskogo narodnogo muzitsirovaniia i vzaimosviazi russkoi i slavianskoi muzyki.” Izbr. trudy, vol. 4. Moscow, 1955.
Martynov, I. Stevan Mokraríiats iserbskaia muzyka. Moscow, 1958.
Iampol’skii, I. Muzyka Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1958.
Iz proshlogo iugoslavskoi muzyki: Sb. statei iugoslavskikh muzykovedov. Moscow, 1970.
Jugoslav Music. Edited by J. Andreis and S. Zlatic. Belgrade, 1959.
Andreis, J., D. Cvetko, and S. Djurić-Klajn. Historijski razvoj muzičke kulture u Jugoslaviji. Zagreb, 1962.
See also references under MACEDONIA, SERBIA, SLOVENIA, CROATIA, and MONTENEGRO.
E. I. GORDINA
In Yugoslavia the first ballets were staged in the 18th century by touring Italian and German companies. A small ballet company formed in Zagreb in 1894 by O. Bartik staged L. Delibes’s Coppélia and A. Adam’s Giselle between 1895 and 1898 and mounted the first national ballets; later the company performed only in operatic productions. After 1918 permanent ballet companies were formed in the theaters of Belgrade, Ljubljana, and Zagreb under the direction of the Russian dancers E. Poliakova and Margarita and Max Froman. Three outstanding national ballets were produced in the interwar period: K. Baranović’s Gingerbread Heart (1927), choreographed by Margarita Froman, S. Hristić’s Ohrid Legend (1933), and F. Lhotka’s Village Devil (1938). Many of the ballets staged in the 1930’s and 1940’s by the Fromans, Pia and Pino Mlakar, and O. Harmoš incorporated folk motifs.
After the National Liberation War ballet companies were founded in Sarajevo, Novi Sad, Skopje, Maribor, and elsewhere. The Belgrade Ballet was for many years headed by the famous choreographer D. Parlić, who was succeeded by K. Obradović. The choreographers A. Roje, M. Jovanović, and S. Pavletić worked in Zagreb. Elements of folk dance are incorporated into ballets; one-act ballets, often plotless, are choreographed to classical music; and ballets by foreign, including Soviet, composers are staged. Since 1960 international ballet festivals have been held every two years in Ljubljana. A ballet school was established in Belgrade in 1947.
REFERENCEMarinković Rakić, B., and R. Nikolajević. Ballet Jougoslave. Belgrade, 1958.
The Yugoslav theater has assimilated the dramatic traditions of the peoples inhabiting Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Montenegro. After the formation of a unified Yugoslav state in 1918, the theater developed under more favorable conditions, although it was still fettered by the reactionary Greater Serbia policy of the ruling bourgeoisie. The director B. Gavella did much to raise the level of acting and directing through his productions at the national theaters of Belgrade, Novi Sad, Zagreb, and Ljubljana. Gavella put into practice the principle of ensemble acting and both as a theater critic and as a teacher essentially adhered to the Stanislavsky method. Progressive social tendencies were reinforced in the comedies of B. Nušić, the plays of B. Shaw, L. Pirandello, and K. Čapek, and the works of such Soviet authors as V. P. Kataev, which were staged despite bans by the censorship. Workers’ amateur and studio theaters offered a revolutionary repertoire; the most successful of them was the Proletarian State in Ljubljana (1928–35), headed by the director F. Delak. During World War II many theaters were closed down. The actors who took part in the National Liberation War organized professional and amateur companies that performed national classics, skits, and pantomimes.
After the formation of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, a national theater was opened in the capital of each republic. Founded in Belgrade in 1948, the Yugoslav Drama Theater stages national and world classics, contemporary plays, and Russian and Soviet works. The theater’s principal director until 1970 was B. Stupica.
The Gavella Drama Theater, opened in Zagreb in 1954, is noted for its productions of contemporary Yugoslav and foreign plays. The country’s foremost theater is the National Theater in Belgrade, which seeks to acquaint the general public with Yugoslav and world classics, the plays of B. Nušić and M. Glišić, and works by the contemporary Yugoslav playwrights M. Krleža, M. Matković, M. Djoković, and A. Popović. The theater has staged fine productions of plays by J. Anouilh, B. Brecht, L. N. Tolstoy, and Shakespeare. The drama company of the Serbian National Theater in Novi Sad frequently presents national classics, including the plays of J. Sterija Popović and K. Trifković. Excellent performances are given by the Croatian National Theater in Zagreb, whose repertoire includes plays by Krleža and R. Marinković. The theater’s principal director is K. Spaić.
The Slovene National Theater in Ljubljana stages Slovene and foreign classics, as well as plays by such contemporary Slovene playwrights as B. Kreft and M. Bor. Yugoslavia’s experimental groups, entranced with the theater of the absurd in the 1950’s and 1960’s, turned to contemporary Yugoslav and foreign satire and classical works in the mid-1970’s. The most important of these groups is the Atelier 212 in Belgrade. International theater festivals have been held since 1969. Other periodic theatrical events include the Sterijino Pozorje Festival (since 1956, Novi Sad), the Joakim Vujić Theatrical Meetings (since 1974, Vršac), the international Dubrovnik Summer Festival (since 1950), and the Student Theater Festival in Zagreb.
In 1950 academies of theater, film, and television were established in Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana, and other cities to train young specialists. The main theater magazines are Scena, published in Novi Sad since 1964, and Teatron, issued in Belgrade since 1973. The theory and history of drama are studied at the Institute of Literature and Theater, established in 1948 under the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb.
REFERENCESVagapova, N. M. “Teatr narodov Iugoslavii: Stsenicheskoe iskusstvo, dramaturgiia.” In Istoriia zambezhnogo leatra, part 2. Moscow, 1972.
Vagapova, N. M. “Teatr Sotsialisticheskoi Federativnoi Respubliki Iugoslavii.” In Istoriia zambezhnogo teatra, part 3. Moscow, 1977.
Gavella, B. Drama i teatr. Moscow, 1976.
The first motion pictures in the country were made in 1905 by the photographer M. Manaki. In subsequent years newsreels recorded episodes from the Balkan Wars (1912–13) and World War I. In 1910,1. Stanojević-Čiča directed the first Yugoslav feature film, Karageorge, portraying the leader of the First Serbian Uprising (1804–13). In the interwar period all efforts to establish a national film industry failed. The quasiamateur Yugoslav firms could not compete with imported foreign films.
A new phase of Yugoslav film-making began during the National Liberation War, when partisan newsreel-makers filmed military operations against the occupation forces and scenes of the new life in the liberated areas. The first film made in people’s Yugoslavia was Newsreel No. 1 (1945). Motion-picture studios were founded in Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana in August 1945, in Sarajevo and Skopje in 1947, and in Podgorica (Titograd since 1952) in 1949. The production of talkies began with the film Slavica (1947), which was about the antifascist struggle in Dalmatia; the film’s director, V. Afrić, also wrote the screenplay. Thereafter, the theme of war and patriotism dominated the Yugoslav cinema, receiving masterful treatment in such fine films as The Big and the Little (1956, directed by V. Pogačić), The Ninth Circle (1960, F. Štiglic), Kozara (1962, V. Bulajić), Prometheus From Viševice Island (1964, V. Mimica), Battle of the River Neretva (1969, Bulajić), Sutjeska (1973, S. Delić), and The Uzice Republic (1974, Ž. Mitrović).
During the 1960’s and 1970’s film-makers explored various aspects of contemporary Yugoslav life in such films as Face to Face (1963, directed by B. Bauer), The Protégé (1966, V. Slijepčević), and The House (1975, B. Žižić). A number of outstanding films have been based on national classics and contemporary literary works; they include Master of His Own Body (1957, directed by F. Hanžeković), Illegitimate (1963, I. Pretnar), The Dervish and Death (1974, Z. Velimirović), and Train in the Snow (1976, M. Relja). Excellent documentary films have also been produced. The Zagreb school of animation, which arose in 1950, has become world famous through the cartoon films of D. Vukotić, N. Dragić, and B. Dovniković.
The Fest international film festival has been held in Yugoslavia since 1971. In 1976, Yugoslavia had 12 studios releasing feature films and 20 studios making shorts. The Yugoslav Film Museum was established in Belgrade in 1949. The leading film magazines are Filmska kultura (since 1957), Ekran (since 1962), and Sineast (since 1967).
REFERENCESAnokhin, I. Kinoiskusstvo Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1966.
Kino Iugoslavii. Moscow, 1978.