Yukaghir


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Yukaghir

 

(self-designation, odul, detkil), a small nationality in Eastern Siberia. The Yukaghir number approximately 800 persons (1979, census). Their language is Yukaghir. One group of Yukaghir lives in the tundra in Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR; another group lives in the taiga in Verkhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR, and Srednekanskii Raion, Magadan Oblast.

At the beginning of Russian colonization, in the 17th century, Yukaghir clan tribal groups, including the Chuvans, Khodyns, and Anauls, occupied the territory from the Lena River to the mouth of the Anadyr’ River. The number of Yukaghir decreased between the 17th and 19th centuries owing to epidemics, internal feuding, and the tsarist colonial policies. Some Yukaghir were assimilated by the Yakuts, Evens, and Russians. Social relations among the Yukaghir preserved features of the period of transition from a matrilineal clan system to a patriarchy. There were vestiges of matrilocal residence. Despite the Christianization of the Yukaghir in the 19th century, clan shamans continued to have great influence.

Since the establishment of Soviet power, the Yukaghir economy and culture have undergone radical changes. The Yukaghir are now members of sovkhozes that specialize in hunting and reindeer herding.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
lukagiry. Novosibirsk, 1975.
Jochelson, W. The Jukaghir and the Jukaghirized Tungus. Leiden-New York, 1926.

Yukaghir

 

the language of the Yukaghir. Yukaghir is spoken in the Yakut ASSR. The total number of speakers is 288 (1970, census).

Yukaghir belongs to the Paleosiberian (Paleo-Asiatic) languages. Some scholars have suggested similarities between Yukaghir and the Uralic and Altaic languages. Yukaghir has two dialects, Tundra and Kolyma, which differ from each other considerably. The phoneme w is absent in the Kolyma dialect, and the fricatives š and ž are absent in the Tundra dialect.

Nouns, pronouns, cardinal numbers ending in -I2e, action nouns, and adverbs of place are declined. Nouns have seven cases. Verbs, including the lexicosemantic groups of qualitative, quantitative, and pronominal verbs, are conjugated. There are no adjectives; adjectival meanings are expressed by means of qualitative verbs. Special grammatical forms exist for expressing logical stress. In addition to native Yukaghir words, the vocabulary contains cognates of Nenets words, as well as borrowings from Even, Yakut, and Russian. Yukaghir is an unwritten language.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. “Iukagirskii iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 5. Leningrad, 1968. (Contains bibliography.)

I. K. SAZONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Hunting, Animism, and Personhood among the Siberian Yukaghirs. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
"Not animal, not not-animal: Hunting, Imitation, and Empathetic Knowledge among the Siberian Yukaghir", en: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10 (3): 629-652.
the functional scope of the focus markers (Maslova 1997), the other Yukaghir language, or presented equivocally, e.g.
Jochelson, Waldemar (1926) The Yukaghir and Yukaghirized Tungus.
For the Khanty and Mansi of Central Asia there were several terms for bears including "Swamp Darling," "Old One of the Forest," "Darling Old One," and "Sacred Animal." The Finns employed several terms to describe the bear including "Master of the Forest" and "Pride of the Woodlands" while the Yukaghir, a Mongolian people of northern Siberia, refer to the bear as the "Owner of the Earth." Common to all these terms is the resonance of spiritual power, strength and control.
The 54 languages include the following: Abaza, Aghul, Akhvakh, Aleut, Alutor, Andi, Archi, Bagvalal, Bezhta, Botlikh, Chamalal, Chukchee, Chulym, Dolgan, Enets, Even, Evenki, Godoberi, Hinukh, Hunzib, Itelmen, Izhorian, Kaitag, Karata, Kerek, Ket, Khanty, Khvarshi, Koryak, Kubachi, Mansi, Nanai, Negidal, Nenets, Nganasan, Nivkh, Oroch, Orok, Rutul, Sami, Selkup, Shor, Tat, Tindi, Tofa, Tsakhur, Tsez, Udege, Ulchi, Vepsian, Votian, Yug, Yukaghir, and Yupik.
In addition to the 45 songs collected by Boas and Teit at Spences Bridge, Wlademar Jochelson and Waldemar Bogoras collected 139 cylinders in Siberia--from the Koryak, Yukaghir, Yakut, Tungus, Chukchi, and Eskimo--in 1901-2.
The Yukaghir were a numerous people occupying a large area to the east of the Lena when the Russians arrived but had declined to 1,500 individuals at the end of the 19th century, and in 1960 it was estimated that there were no more than 400.
The image, entitled "Yukaghir Epistle," depicts a letter sent by a young woman of the Yukaghir tribe of northeastern Siberia to her estranged boyfriend (try interpreting the image before looking at its explanation in the caption, which appears on the following page).
of Oslo), a Danish anthropologist, narrates a gripping tale of his experiences in Siberia while attempting to organize a fur cooperative among indigenous (Yukaghir) hunters.