Yukaghir

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Related to Yukaghirs: Yakut, Buryat
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Yukaghir

 

(self-designation, odul, detkil), a small nationality in Eastern Siberia. The Yukaghir number approximately 800 persons (1979, census). Their language is Yukaghir. One group of Yukaghir lives in the tundra in Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR; another group lives in the taiga in Verkhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR, and Srednekanskii Raion, Magadan Oblast.

At the beginning of Russian colonization, in the 17th century, Yukaghir clan tribal groups, including the Chuvans, Khodyns, and Anauls, occupied the territory from the Lena River to the mouth of the Anadyr’ River. The number of Yukaghir decreased between the 17th and 19th centuries owing to epidemics, internal feuding, and the tsarist colonial policies. Some Yukaghir were assimilated by the Yakuts, Evens, and Russians. Social relations among the Yukaghir preserved features of the period of transition from a matrilineal clan system to a patriarchy. There were vestiges of matrilocal residence. Despite the Christianization of the Yukaghir in the 19th century, clan shamans continued to have great influence.

Since the establishment of Soviet power, the Yukaghir economy and culture have undergone radical changes. The Yukaghir are now members of sovkhozes that specialize in hunting and reindeer herding.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
lukagiry. Novosibirsk, 1975.
Jochelson, W. The Jukaghir and the Jukaghirized Tungus. Leiden-New York, 1926.

Yukaghir

 

the language of the Yukaghir. Yukaghir is spoken in the Yakut ASSR. The total number of speakers is 288 (1970, census).

Yukaghir belongs to the Paleosiberian (Paleo-Asiatic) languages. Some scholars have suggested similarities between Yukaghir and the Uralic and Altaic languages. Yukaghir has two dialects, Tundra and Kolyma, which differ from each other considerably. The phoneme w is absent in the Kolyma dialect, and the fricatives š and ž are absent in the Tundra dialect.

Nouns, pronouns, cardinal numbers ending in -I2e, action nouns, and adverbs of place are declined. Nouns have seven cases. Verbs, including the lexicosemantic groups of qualitative, quantitative, and pronominal verbs, are conjugated. There are no adjectives; adjectival meanings are expressed by means of qualitative verbs. Special grammatical forms exist for expressing logical stress. In addition to native Yukaghir words, the vocabulary contains cognates of Nenets words, as well as borrowings from Even, Yakut, and Russian. Yukaghir is an unwritten language.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. “Iukagirskii iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 5. Leningrad, 1968. (Contains bibliography.)

I. K. SAZONOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, in Sami and Siberian Yukaghir hunting rituals men dressed in reindeer skins in order to become a reindeer (Itkonen 1948b, 18 f.; Willerslev 2007).
Por su parte, Willerslev (2007) en su etnografia sobre cazadores Yukaghir en Siberia, describe la relacion que tienen los humanos con la "naturaleza" como parte de un contexto de interaccion constante de caceria donde la depredacion de animales es constante e inclusive anti-ecologica debido a su desmedida intensificacion.
"Not animal, not not-animal: Hunting, Imitation, and Empathetic Knowledge among the Siberian Yukaghir", en: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10 (3): 629-652.
The Yukaghir were a numerous people occupying a large area to the east of the Lena when the Russians arrived but had declined to 1,500 individuals at the end of the 19th century, and in 1960 it was estimated that there were no more than 400.
To the east of the Taymyr Peninsula, the human populations become even more diverse in terms of their origins and languages: The Evenki, Yakuts of Turkish origin, Yukaghir of Samoyed origin, Chukchi and Inuit, without including the mixed-race peoples, whose origins are relatively distinct, but whose cultural identity is consolidated, such as the Dolgan, Chuvases, Kolimchans or Kamchadales or Itelmen.
Apart from these dominant families, there is also the Yukaghir language (spoken by about 11 people in 1994), related to Samoyedic, and the Yuk language of the Siberian Inuit (a little over a thousand people), which they share with the Yuk of Alaska.
[Issues in the revival of the disappearin Yukaghirs.] Jakutsk: Severoved.
Grammaticalized focus in Yukaghir: Is it really grammaticalized and is it really focus?
(7) Recovering a specifically Siberian Yukaghir sense of animal spectres, anthropologist Rane Willerslev pursues the latter route as he reframes animism in terms of an "indigenous metaphysics" that deeply unsettles "ontological certainties" and therefore signals an opportunity for "critical dialogue" concerning Arctic and southern "theories of knowledge" (3).
Tundra Yukaghir (henceforward TY) is one of the two survivors, the second being Kolyma Yukaghir (henceforward KY), of a group of closely related languages spoken by the peoples (wadul/odul) that once populated the vast area of the Russian Empire between the cost of the North Polar See and the upper reaches of Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma spreading longitudinally as far as the lower reaches of Lena and upper reaches of Anadyr (Donskoj 1996:22).
the functional scope of the focus markers (Maslova 1997), the other Yukaghir language, or presented equivocally, e.g.