Yung-lo


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Yung-lo

(yo͞ong-lô), 1359–1424, reign title of the 3d emperor (1403–24) of the Chinese MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
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 dynasty, whose personal name was Chu Ti. He rose to power in N China after being delegated by his father, the Ming founding emperor Hung Wu (reigned 1368–98), to lead the fight against the retreating Mongols. He usurped the throne from his nephew, Emperor Chien Wen (reigned 1399–1402), after a devastating civil war. Under his reign six maritime expeditions led by the Muslim eunuch Cheng HoCheng Ho
or Zheng He
, 1371–c.1433, admiral, diplomat, and explorer during China's Ming dynasty. At 10 he was captured by Chinese troops in Yunnan, castrated, and sent into the army.
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 sailed as far as Arabia and E Africa, and tributary relations were established with many kingdoms in SE Asia. Yung-lo focused his energy, however, on securing defense in the north. As emperor he personally led five vast military campaigns far across the steppe to subdue the Mongol tribes. The importance of the north was confirmed when in 1421 he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, just S of the Great WallGreat Wall of China,
series of fortifications, c.3,890 mi (6,260 km) long (not including trenches and natural defensive barriers), winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Liaoning prov.
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References in periodicals archive ?
6) According to the MingAnnals, the Yung-lo Emperor presented a black hat, a robe and a title to Shakya Ye shes when he left for Tibet in 1416.
Shakya Ye shes was not the first lama to visit the Yung-lo Emperor Cheng zu.
The dedication closes with several verses of homage to Shakya Ye shes: 'Homage to the one who came into the presence of the cakravartin, he gave me great merit, Homage', which may be understood as a special expression of gratitude to Shakya Ye shes for his personal teachings and numerous initiations bestowed upon the Yung-lo Emperor in his capacity as cakravartin.
Support for this argument is provided by the thangka's style, which shares many characteristics of the art of the Yung-lo reign.
In terms of iconography, the pilasters of Hevajra's arch are very similar to those on a slightly larger embroidery of Yamantaka in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which also has a similar portrait of Shakya Ye shes and has been attributed to the Yung-lo period (Figs 7, 8 and 9).
The historic, iconographic and stylistic data presented here indicate that this embroidery thangka of Hevajra and Nairatma is a highly significant work of art of the Yung-lo period.
In the dedication verses, there is an acrostic poem using the syllables of Shakya Ye shes name and citing certain specific terms of the Yung-lo title awarded to Shakya Ye shes.
The expression mkbyen rtse literally means 'the peak of understanding', which renders the Chinese expression 'wonderfully enlightened', while byams chen may be translated as 'great love, great goodness', thus rendering the Yung-lo tide's expression 'spreading goodness'.
According to Michael Henss, this is the hat given to Shakya Ye shes by the Yung-lo Emperor (see M.
62 for the portrait of a much younger lama, identified as Shakya Ye shes, a detail of the gos sku of Yarnantaka attributed to the Yung-lo period (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).
The Yung-lo Emperor, the force behind these voyages, died in August 1424.
Within ten years after the Yung-lo Emperor's death, the world's largest shipyards were abandoned, the great fleet was disbanded, and China withdrew from the seas, leaving an enormous vacuum of power.