Sadducees

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Sadducees

(săj`o͝osēz, săd`yo͝o–), sect of Jews formed around the time of the Hasmonean revolt (c.200 B.C.). Little is known concerning their beliefs, but according to Josephus Flavius, they upheld only the authority of the written law, and not the oral tradition held by the Pharisees. They are believed to have had a small following, drawn primarily from the upper classes. Eventually, they reached an accommodation with the Pharisees, which allowed them to serve as priests in exchange for acceptance of Pharasitical rulings regarding the law. Their sect was centered on the cult of the Temple, and they ceased to exist after its destruction in A.D. 70.

Bibliography

See bibliography under PhariseesPharisees
, one of the two great Jewish religious and political parties of the second commonwealth. Their opponents were the Sadducees, and it appears that the Sadducees gave them their name, perushim, Hebrew for "separatists" or "deviants.
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Sadducees

 

(in Greek, Saddukaioi; in Hebrew, tsedoqim, from Tzadoq [Zadok], a high priest in the tenth century B.C.), a religious and political current in Judea from the second century B.C. through the first century A.D.; it drew its support from the higher officialdom, rich merchants, and the priestly, landhold-ing, and military aristocracy.

The Sadducees captured the commanding positions in the temple hierarchy and in political life and became the political basis of the Hasmonean dynasty. They sharply diverged from the Pharisees on questions of dogma, rejecting the Oral Law elaborated by the Pharisees and not permitting any deviation from the letter of the Mosaic Written Law. Contrary to the Pharisees’ teaching about a transcendental god, the Sadducees had anthropomorphic conceptions of him and rejected the doctrines of predestination, physical resurrection, and the immortality of the soul. They taught that god did not interfere in human affairs and that man had a free will and could freely choose between good and evil. After the attacks launched by Herod I, the war against Rome of 66–73, and the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, the Sadducees disappeared from the historical scene.

I. D. AMUSIN

References in periodicals archive ?
As Eliade specifies, Hebrew literature "gives the Gentile kings (Zadokite Fragments, IX: 19-20) the characteristics of the dragon: such is the Pompey described in the Psalms of Solomon (IX:29), the Nebuchadrezzar presented by Jeremiah (51:34).
Jeshua son of Jozadak, Ezra 3:2), is a priest of the Zadokite lineage.
(20) A prominent view among scholars is that the Essenes were founded by a group of Zadokite priests who lost their power at the Jerusalem Temple.
Whether it was the Zadokite or Damascus Document with its focus on Genesis 1:27 ("[I]n the image of God he created them, male and female he created them." (244)) and 7:9 ("[M]ale and female, came to Noah and entered the ark, as God had commanded Noah." (245)), or the Samaritans' and Karaites' focus on Leviticus 18:18 ("Do not take your wife's sister as a rival wife and have sexual relations with her while your wife is living." (246)) the heretical influence might have been the real polygamic spur in the Rabbinic side.
Damascus Document 6:19; 8:21; 20:12: Hebrew text available in Chaim Rabin, The Zadokite Documents [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958] and Eduard Lohse, Die Texte aus Qumran [Munchen: Kosel Verlag, 1964]).
Son of a wealthy Zadokite Jew, he has grown up in two worlds: the secular life of his father and the religious life of his uncle.
"A reconsideration of 'Damascus' and '90 Years' in the 'Damascus' ('Zadokite') Fragments." Journal of Biblical Literature, 73:11-35.
The Qumran covenanters call themselves "sons of Zadok," a name they would have shared with the Sadducees, as "Zadokite" and "Sadducee" are the same word in Hebrew.
Instead, he regroups the texts into entirely different intellectual or rather ideological trajectories, for which he himself invents somewhat idiosyncratic designations, namely Zadokite, Enochic, and Sapiental Judaism.
Rowley, The Zadokite Fragments and the Dead Sea Scrolls (London: Lutterworth Press, 1952).
(15) Solomon Schechter, Documents of Jewish Sectaries: Vol 1: Fragments of a Zadokite Work (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910).
The occupants of the Dead Sea settlement professed loyalty to the authentic `Sons of Zadok, the priests' (1QS V.9), that is, to Zadokite high priests, whom the Hasmoneans had ejected.