Gabriela Zapolska

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Zapolska, Gabriela


(real surname. Korwin-Piotrowska, married names Śniezka, Janpwska). Born Mar. 30, 1857, in Podhajcy, present-day Ukrainian SSR; died Dec. 17, 1921, in L’viv. Polish writer and actress.

Zapolska began publishing in the 1880’s. In her prose a knowledge of customs and mores and bold exposure of social evils are combined with naturalistic tendencies. Her dramas and comedies are characterized by skillful composition and characterization and by expressive dialogue. Her best play, The Morals of Pani Dulska (1906), satirizes the hypocrisy of the petite bourgeoisie. She wrote about the disintegration of the bourgeois family (The Four of Them, 1907) and about the thwarted lives of women (The Young Frog, 1896). Zapolska also chose subjects from the Polish patriotic struggle (That Man, 1899) and was interested in socialist ideas (In Dqbrowa Górnicza, 1899; the novel The Forest Is Rustling, 1899).


In Russian translation:
Sobr. soch., vols. 1–7. Moscow, 1911–13.
P’esy. Moscow, 1958.


Bashindzhagian-Arutiunova, N. Z. “Gabrielia Zapol’skaia.” In Istoriia pol’skoi literatury, vol. 2. Moscow, 1969.
References in periodicals archive ?
To learn the most about their craft, to gain a worldly vantage point on subjects, techniques, and influences, aspiring Polish artists such as Boznanska or Zapolska or Kuryluk necessarily traveled to those world capitals (Paris, New York) that attracted and enabled a cosmopolitan community of their professional peers.
If the transgressiveness of the heroic woman warrior Plater worried relatives and observers, then such actresses as Zapolska and Wisnowska, who played provocative parts offstage as well as on, coped with daunting social censure.
It was a golden age of women's literature, characterized by the poetry of Maria Konopnicka, as well as the novels of Orzeszkowa, Gabriela Zapolska and Zofia Nalkowska, just to name a few.
The playwrights' nationalities and the dates their plays were written range from Poland's Zapolska (1906) and Greece's Siganou-Parren (1907), to Belgium's Lilar (1945) and Finland's Manner (1968), to France's Duras (1977), France's Benmussa (977), Spain's Diosdado (1973), Spain's Pedrero (1984), Italy's Maraini (1978), Germany's Reinshagen (1976), Czechoslovakia's Fischerova (1979), Austria's Jelinek (1981), Russia's Petrushevskaya (1983), Norway's Vik (1992), Sweden's Lugn (1993), Denmark's Saalbach (1993), and Iceland's Guomundsdottir (1998).
90) and Gabriela Zapolska (1857-1921) repeatedly braved the
well-born Zapolska "became an emancypantka out of necessity"
Zapolska regularly had to flee the scenes of her scandals--an
woman" on stage, Zapolska first introduced Russian audiences to
image offstage, as Zapolska stands haughtily "at home" for her
Yet Zapolska eclipsed all of her professional female peers through
Indeed, Modjeska sought out Zapolska, among other promising Polish
This wishful scenario posits a continuity of character, whereby the divas scandalous and front-page-making, though ultimately intolerable, real-life histrionics transfer seamlessly and productively to larger-than-life operatic enactments and vice versa--a continuity the writer-stage actress Gabriela Zapolska exploited, but the film star Krystyna Janda vigorously and vociferously contests (see Holmgren and Elzbieta Ostrowska in this volume).