To learn the most about their craft, to gain a worldly vantage point on subjects, techniques, and influences, aspiring Polish artists such as Boznanska or Zapolska or Kuryluk necessarily traveled to those world capitals (Paris, New York) that attracted and enabled a cosmopolitan community of their professional peers.
If the transgressiveness of the heroic woman warrior Plater worried relatives and observers, then such actresses as Zapolska and Wisnowska, who played provocative parts offstage as well as on, coped with daunting social censure.
It was a golden age of women's literature, characterized by the poetry of Maria Konopnicka, as well as the novels of Orzeszkowa, Gabriela Zapolska
and Zofia Nalkowska, just to name a few.
The playwrights' nationalities and the dates their plays were written range from Poland's Zapolska
(1906) and Greece's Siganou-Parren (1907), to Belgium's Lilar (1945) and Finland's Manner (1968), to France's Duras (1977), France's Benmussa (977), Spain's Diosdado (1973), Spain's Pedrero (1984), Italy's Maraini (1978), Germany's Reinshagen (1976), Czechoslovakia's Fischerova (1979), Austria's Jelinek (1981), Russia's Petrushevskaya (1983), Norway's Vik (1992), Sweden's Lugn (1993), Denmark's Saalbach (1993), and Iceland's Guomundsdottir (1998).
90) and Gabriela Zapolska (1857-1921) repeatedly braved the
well-born Zapolska "became an emancypantka out of necessity"
Zapolska regularly had to flee the scenes of her scandals--an
woman" on stage, Zapolska first introduced Russian audiences to
image offstage, as Zapolska stands haughtily "at home" for her
Yet Zapolska eclipsed all of her professional female peers through
Indeed, Modjeska sought out Zapolska, among other promising Polish
This wishful scenario posits a continuity of character, whereby the divas scandalous and front-page-making, though ultimately intolerable, real-life histrionics transfer seamlessly and productively to larger-than-life operatic enactments and vice versa--a continuity the writer-stage actress Gabriela Zapolska
exploited, but the film star Krystyna Janda vigorously and vociferously contests (see Holmgren and Elzbieta Ostrowska in this volume).