Zaporizhzhya

(redirected from Zaporizhia)
Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Zaporizhzhya

(zäp'ərĭzh`ə), Rus. Zaporozhye, city (1989 pop. 884,000), capital of Zaporizhzhya region, in Ukraine, a port on the Dnieper River, opposite the island of Khortytsya. The city, founded in 1770 on the site of the Zaporizhzhya Cossack camp, consists of old Zaporizhzhya (called Aleksandrovsk before 1921) and the new industrial Zaporizhzhya, which developed during the 1930s and adjoins the Dniprohes installations and the port of Lenin.

It is a major rail junction and industrial center and the site of the Dniprohes dam and power station, one of the country's largest hydroelectric plants. Large quantities of grain are exported. The city has steel mills, coking plants, aluminum and magnesium works, and factories that produce automobiles, farm machinery, and transformers. Well supplied with electricity, Zaporizhzhya forms, together with the adjoining Donets Basin and the Nikopol manganese and Kryvyy Rih iron mines, one of Ukraine's leading industrial complexes. The high concentration of older industry, however, has had a harmful effect on air quality.

The Zaporizhzhya Cossacks

The island of Khortytsya, in the Dnieper, was headquarters (sich) of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks from the 16th to 18th cent. (The word Zaporizhzhya means "beyond the rapids," i.e., of the Dnieper.) For nearly three centuries the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks served as the rallying point for Ukrainian struggles against social, national, and religious oppression.

After the union of Poland and Lithuania in 1569, Ukraine came under Polish rule; but the Poles were too weak to defend it from frequent devastating Tatar raids. The need for self-defense led at the end of the 15th cent. to the rise of the Ukrainian Cossacks, who by the mid-16th cent. had formed a state, organized along republican lines and ruled by a hetman, along the lower and middle Dnieper. At its height it occupied most of S Ukraine except the Black Sea littoral, a possession of the Crimean khans. Although they formally recognized the sovereignty of the Polish kings, the Cossacks, for all practical purposes, enjoyed complete political independence.

By the end of the 16th cent., however, Poland sought fuller control over Ukraine and the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. Persecution of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church after 1596 provoked repeated outbreaks among the Ukrainians, and the Cossacks, as staunch adherents of the Orthodox faith, participated actively in the rebellions. In 1648 the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, led by Hetman Bohdan ChmielnickiChmielnicki, Khmelnytskyy or Khmelnitsky, Bohdan
, c.1595–1657, hetman (leader) of Ukraine. An educated member of the Ukrainian gentry, he early joined the Ukrainian Cossacks.
..... Click the link for more information.
, began a series of campaigns that eventually defeated the Poles and freed Ukraine from Polish domination. Chmielnicki's forces suffered defeat in 1651, however, and were forced at Bila Tserkva to accept a treaty unfavorable to Ukraine.

In 1654, Chmielnicki persuaded the Cossacks to transfer their allegiance to the Russian czars. By the Treaty of Andrusov in 1667, the left bank of the Dnieper and Kiev were ceded to Russia. The Russians proceeded to encroach upon Cossack privileges much as the Poles had, thus engendering revolts in what was left of the Zaporizhzhya territory. When Hetman Ivan MazepaMazepa, Ivan
, c.1640–1709, Cossack hetman [leader] in the Russian Ukraine. He was made hetman (1687) on the insistence of Prince Gallitzin, adviser to the Russian regent, Sophia Alekseyevna, and he aided Gallitzin in his campaign against the Tatars (1689).
..... Click the link for more information.
 joined Charles XII of Sweden against Russia in the Northern WarNorthern War,
1700–1721, general European conflict, fought in N and E Europe at the same time that the War of the Spanish Succession was fought in the west and the south.
..... Click the link for more information.
, he shared in the Swedish defeat at PoltavaPoltava
, city (1989 pop. 315,000), capital of Poltava region, E Ukraine, on the Kiev-Kharkiv highway and on the Vorskla River, a tributary of the Dnieper. It is an industrial center and important rail junction in the rich black-earth agricultural region.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1709). Many Zaporizhzhya Cossacks fled to the khanate of Crimea, but in 1734 they were allowed to return to their old territory and to establish a new Cossack headquarters.

Russia, however, continued to view the Cossacks with suspicion; and in 1775 the Russian army, on orders from Catherine II, destroyed the Zaporizhzhya camp, thus completely abolishing the last stronghold of Ukrainian independence. Most of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks then moved to Turkish territory at the mouth of the Danube, where they founded a new community. In 1828–29, however, they returned to Ukraine and settled along the shores of the Sea of Azov.

When the Russians tried in the 19th cent. to settle them in the newly conquered N Caucasus, the Cossacks rebelled and were disbanded (1865). Those Zaporizhzhya Cossacks who had remained in Ukraine were allowed in 1787 to settle along the Black Sea shores between the Dnieper and Buh rivers; they became known as the Black Sea Cossacks. In 1792 they were resettled in the Kuban region and after 1860 became known as the Kuban Cossacks.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
When complete, Zaporizhia will significantly increase Ukraine's wind energy capacity, helping to modernise the energy market.
* Sponsor, LongWing Energy, and co-investor, VLC Renewables, secure project financing for the first 98 MWs of its Zaporizhia wind farm project in Ukraine
In Zaporizhia, children play the ecological board game "Recycling" within the presentation of "Book about Garbage." The game was created by school boy from Zaporizhia.
"Flights to the airports of Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv and Zaporizhia are banned for security reasons," the air service said, Itar-Tass reported.
Seizing control of the seaside corridor in Novoazovsk would allow Russia to access oil and gas fields operated by the Russian energy giant Gazprom, the military hardware in the Zaporizhia region and an important food factory in Kherson, which is Ukraine's entryway to Crimea.
On August 8, an informed source told RIA Novosti that the photographer was being held by the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) in the Zaporizhia Region in southern Ukraine.
It marks the second time a synagogue has been targeted in this way in the past two months, after a Chabad synagogue in the eastern town of Zaporizhia was firebombed in February.
Ukrainian Antonov State Enterprise (Kyiv) and public joint-stock company Motor Sich (Zaporizhia) have signed a cooperation agreement on the modernization of a Cuban fleet of An-2 aircraft with the Cuban Aviation Corp., Antonov State Enterprise has reported.
WHERE in Europe is the city of Zaporizhia? WHEN did the BBC TV show Grandstand first air?
The fact that Butkevych was born 5,000 miles from London in Zaporizhia means she is likely to not be as well received as the likes of Jessica Ennis and Sir Chris Hoy have been at the Games, but she hopes the crowd get behind her as she looks to win Britain's first medal in the sport since 1984.
A winemaker named Greg was the winner and he is due in the Ukraine mining town of Donetsk later this month before also visiting another town called Zaporizhia.
BANKING AND CREDIT NEWS-4 March 2010-Ukraine's Zaporizhia plant buys 24.6% in Industrialbank(C)1994-2010 M2 COMMUNICATIONS http://www.m2.com