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The country code for South Africa.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



organizations of artisans and merchants in medieval Japan, similar to medieval European guilds. They existed mainly from the 12th century to the 16th. They paid tribute to their feudal lords for protection and for the maintainance of their monopoly rights to produce and sell goods in a particular region. At the end of the 16th century Nobunaga Oda and Hideyoshi Toyotomi abolished many of the ia. Between the 17th and 19th centuries they were for the most part replaced by other monopoly organizations, such as the nakama and kabunakama.


Iskenderov, A. A. Feodal’nyi gorod laponii XVI stoletiia. Moscow, 1961.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
El trabajo fue realizado en dos ZAs del estado de Yucatan, Mexico: el Parque Nacional Dzibilchaltun y el Parque Estatal de Kabah, las cuales fueron seleccionadas por encontrarse en los dos habitats naturales mas representativos de Yucatan, la selva baja caducifolia y la selva mediana subcaducifolia, respectivamente, ademas de que se trata de ZAs que cuentan con decreto oficial para su proteccion (SECOL 1993; 2007), siendo el turismo a pequena escala el unico uso de suelo permitido.
At the same time, several of these painters recognized the aesthetic teaching of the writer in their pictorial practice; great teacher, he was called by his admired friend Romero de Torres (Santos Zas, "Valle-Inclan, de puno ..." 435) and not without reason, as Rivas Cherif remembers in an interview published in Espana (11/5/1916) :
The post of secretary general of the "pro-Azerbaijani" CSTO will be taken by a graduate of the Baku Higher All-Arms Command School, Stanislav Zas, an activist who supports the deepening of military-technical cooperation between Minsk and Baku.
In turn, the candidacy of the Belarus representative Stanislav Zas for the post of secretary general was supported by Kyrgyzstan.
President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev told the Secretary of State of the Security Council of Belarus Stanislav Zas that Kazakhstan backs Belarus' candidate for CSTO Secretary General.
According to Dubai based design firm ZAS Architects, the company's next big project is a five star hotel in Dubai with a rainforest and artificial beach.