Zaum


Also found in: Wikipedia.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Zaum’

 

(also zaumnyi iazyk, “trans-sense language”), a concept propounded by the theoreticians of Russian futurism in the early 1920’s. The term “zaum’” was introduced by the poet V. Khlebnikov, who sought to discover the general laws governing the direct interdependence of sound and sense. Proceeding from these laws he attempted to create a new poetic language unencumbered by the “everyday meaning of the word”—a language “beyond reason.”Zaum’ generally refers only to the poetic methods of the Russian futurists, notably V. Khlebnikov, A. Kruchenykh, and V. Kamenskii. For the linguists and poets associated with the journal LEF, the problem of zaum’ was connected with a totally different task—the objective of “linguistic technology,” or the conscious alteration of the literary language. For the futurists zaum’ was a kind of laboratory work for revealing the expressive possibilities of a word. The problem posed by Khlebnikov is on the whole insoluble: a word free of the “burden” of “everyday meanings” does not exist; poetry deals with words in their name-giving and communicative functions. The idea of “linguistic technology,” closely associated with the functional trends in linguistics, has remained on the level of general statements.

REFERENCES

Shklovskii, V. B. “O poezii i zaumnom iazyke.” In the collection Poetika. Petrograd, 1919.
Gofman, V. “lazykovoe novatorstvo Khlebnikova.” In his book Iazyk literatury. Leningrad, 1936.
Vinokur, G. “Futuristy-stroiteli iazyka.”LEF, 1923, no. 1.
Polivanov, E. D. “Obshchii foneticheskii printsip vsiakoi poeticheskoi tekhniki.”Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1963, no. 1.

A. A. LEONT’EV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
(Might Tolkien have been in direct correspondence with a leading exponent of Japhetic theory in the West?) In this new context, Tolkien's Black Speech can be seen to constitute part of a wider, and rather belated, Western response to a theory that embodied the linguistic energy of the Transcaucasus, an expression of the same revolutionary fervor that had inspired Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksei Kruchenykh to write their Futurist opera Victory Over the Sun (1913) in what they termed Zaum: "a universal poetic language, born organically, and not artificially, like Esperanto" (Kruchenykh 182).
concept of "sdvig," generally corresponding to "syntactic" and (more often) "suprasyntactic" zaum in Gerald Janecek's helpful taxonomy.
Roberts, Adam, and Dominik Zaum. "Selective Security: War and the United Nations Security Council since 1945." Adelphi Papers No.
Zaum, Gippert, and Heaven consider religion and religious extremism to be expressions of social, economic or political grievances and opportunity-seeking.
Das varias exposicoes realizadas, destacam-se, 14 fragmentos contemporaneos II--Museu de Arte Moderna da Bahia, Salvador, Brasil (2005), Bios, Galeria Pedro Serrenho, Lisboa (2003), New Skins, Galeria Alvarez, Porto (2007) "Gabriel & Gilberto Colaco + Nick Rodrigues", Rhys Gallery, Boston, EUA (2007), Large formats, Alejandra Von Hartz Gallery, Miami, EUA (2007), Sets #3 --Galeria Ramis Barquet, Nova Iorque, EUA e Monterrey, Mexico (2008), Start, Galeria Zaum Projects, Lisboa (2008), Abre-Alas, curadoria de Beatriz Lemos, Felipe Scovino, Guga Ferraz, Galeria A Gentil Carioca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (2010), 2View, Lugar do Desenho, Fundacao Julio Resende, Gondomar, Portugal (2013), Entre, Galeria Jaime Portas Vilaseca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (2013).
Dominik Zaum (2014, p.344-345) tambem critica o tratamento tecnocrata e meramente legalista dos mecanismos JPB.
(15.) See Rodney Barker, Legitimacy, Legitimation, and the European Union: What Crisis?, in LAW AND ADMINISTRATION IN EUROPE: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF CAROL HARLOW 157, 163-64 (Paul Craig & Richard Rawlings eds., 2003); Dominik Zaum, International Organizations, Legitimacy, and Legitimation, in LEGITIMATING INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 3, 10-12, 16-19 (Dominik Zaum ed., 2013) (arguing that international organizations need to consider their audience when deciding which legitimation strategy to employ because the expectations of different constituents are likely to conflict with regard to the desirability of the status quo, propriety of authority relationships, and suitability of new roles in light of social change).
After the independence, Kosovo are waiting three (3) key challenges to a successful and sustainable transition from conflict to self-sustaining peace and in statebuilding: the difficulties of reconfiguration of international presence in Kosovo, which is linked to changes (the advent and departure) of the international missions; the division of Kosovo and challenges posed by the creation of parallel structures in the north, which could bring instability in Kosovo; threats to stability and development, arising from difficult economic situation in Kosovo, and exacerbated by the high rate of population growth (Zaum, 2009: 5).
Gerald Janecek, the author of a book on Zaum: The Transrational Poetry of Russian Futurism (1996), refers to Charasoff in the following terms:
Zaum (2007) State building is establishing institutions of the