Zavoiskii, Evgenii Konstantinovich
Born Sept. 15 (28), 1907, in Mogilev-Podol’sk. Soviet physicist; academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1964; corresponding member 1953). Hero of Socialist Labor (1969). Graduated from the University of Kazan in 1930. Since 1947 he has been at the Institute of Atomic Energy.
In 1944, Zavoiskii discovered the phenomenon of electron paramagnetic resonance, which opened up a new field of physics—magnetic radiospectroscopy. The phenomenon is widely used in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering; it was the basis for the design of quantum paramagnetic amplifiers, with a low noise level, for space communications and research in astrophysics. A research cycle directed by Zavoiskii dealt with the application of electro-optical converters to the study of fast light processes and other processes (durations of 10~9 to 10~14 sec). Zavoiskii and his coworkers proposed and developed the so-called method of turbulent heating for the production of thermonuclear plasma. He was awarded the State Prize of the USSR (1949) and the Lenin Prize (1957), as well as two Orders of Lenin.
WORKSParamagnitnaia absorbtsiia v perpendikuliarnykh i parallel’nykh poliakh dlia solei, rastvorov i metallov. Kazan, 1944. (Dissertation.)
“Spin-Magnetic Resonance in Paramagnetic s.” Journal of Physics (USSR), 1945, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 245.
“Paramagnetic Absorption in Some Salts in Perpendicular Magnetic Fields.” Journal of Physics (USSR), 1946, vol. 10, no. 2.
“Ob izuchenii sverkhbystrykh svetovykh protsessov.” Dokl. AN SSSR, 1955, vol. 100, no. 4, p. 661. (With S. D. Franchenko.)
“O primenenii mnogokaskadnykh elektronnoopticheskikh usilitelei svetavastrofizike.”Do/:/. AN SSSR, 1958, vol. 121, no. 5, p. 815. (With others.)
“Kollektivnye vzaimodeistviia i problema polucheniia vysokotemperaturnoi plazmy.” Atomnaia energiia, 1963, vol. 14, fasc. 1, p. 57.
“Turbulent Heating of Plasma by Means of a Current.” Nuclear Fusion, 1969. Special Supplement, pp. 235-41. (With others.)