The extinction of the Rurik dynasty at the end of the sixteenth century and the following Time of Troubles at the beginning of the seventeenth century, brought to power the new Romanov dynasty, which initially had to take into consideration the interests of the boyar-noble elite and the "Zemshchina"--local urban and rural communities.
Therefore, Ivan IV divided the Rus' into two parts: oprichnina and zemshchina, using the oriental model in his politics (for details see: S.
The former stayed on Chudentsov Street at the court of Vasilii Shakhanskii, an oprichnina boyar, while the latter stayed on Nikitin Street at the court of zemshchina
servitor Dmitrii Kasil'nikov syn Ludoshin, evidence that residential segregation matched the institutional distinction between members of the oprichnina and members of the "land," even on a joint mission.
(28.) Oprichnina--the part of Russian territory ruled by Ivan IV as his exclusive domain with the aid of oprichniki--his (elite) servants who very soon terrorized the zemshchina
(other parts of the country) and its people in 1565-1572.]
Equally serious in the escalating tension, the Chabad confrontational strategy and extensive demonstrations fuelled violent outbursts of anti-Semitism, as for example, in December in the ultra-nationalist newspaper Zemshchina
Even before mentioning the reception of Magnus, the Russian service records ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) note that the Tsar and the boyars had ordered "making" a fortress in Toolse at the "Tallinn road", and appointed voivodes--the zemshchina
boyar Ivan Petrovich Yakovlev-Zakharjin and the oprichnina okolnichi Vasili Ivanovich Umnoi-Kolychev--to guard it.
The second half of Ivan's reign saw the devastating division of the country into a subordinate land, called the Zemshchina
, and a predatory, dominant inner circle of chosen men, called the Oprichnina.
The rest of the country, called the Zemshchina
, was ostensibly ruled by a prince appointed by Ivan, although the puppet ruler's power was slight.
bibliotek Schneersona i Gintsburga), khraniashchikhsia v fondakh GBL', Zemshchina
, 1991, no.
Russia was living the oprichnina-period, during which the Tsar who had subjected half of the state to his direct despotic rule, had his henchmen (of mostly Tatar and Northern Caucasian descent) terrorise and plunder the so-called zemshchina
The emergence of right-wing organizations and the publication of conservative newspapers such as Zemshchina
, Russkoe delo, Pakhar', Russkoe znamia, and Russkaia zemlia helped diffuse these racist images and representations to the public.
The remaining segment, the zemshchina
, was to be governed by the hereditary aristocrats.