Zemstvo District Chief

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Zemstvo District Chief

 

an administrative-judicial official in the Russian countryside. He was appointed by the governor, according to the law on zemstvo district chiefs of July 12, 1889, usually from among the hereditary dvorianstvo (nobility or gentry) who owned real estate, and he was confirmed by the minister of internal affairs. The introduction of the office of zemstvo district chief was one of the reactionary measures of the government of Alexander III, which was attempting to strengthen the role of the estate-owning dvorianstvo in the countryside after the abolition of serfdom. The zemstvo district chief exercised control over the bodies of peasant public administration and confirmed officials, judges of volosty (small rural districts), and holders of other posts. The functions of the justices of the peace were handed over to the zemstvo district chief. These functions were formaily abolished by the law of June 15, 1912, which was not implemented in practice until February 1917. A district congress was convoked annually, if necessary, and presented a report on the activity of all zemstvo district chiefs to the provincial office.

REFERENCE

Zaionchkovskii, P. A. Rossiiskoe samoderzhavie v kontse XIX st. (politicheskaia reaktsiia 80-kh-nachala 90-kh gg.). Moscow, 1970.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.