Zhavoronkov, Nikolai Mikhailovich
Born July 25 (Aug. 7), 1907, in the village of Streletskie Vyselki, present-day Mikhailov Raion, Riazan’ Oblast. Soviet scientist in inorganic chemistry and chemical engineering. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1962; corresponding member, 1953), Hero of Socialist Labor (1969). Member of the CPSU since 1939. Graduated from the Moscow D. I. Mendeleev Chemical Engineering Institute in 1930. Zhavoronkov was the director of the Karpov Physicochemical Research Institute from 1944 to 1948 and rector of the Moscow D. I. Mendeleev Chemical Engineering Institute from 1948 to 1962. In 1962 he became the director of the N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; in 1963, academician secretary of the Division of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Inorganic Materials of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Zhavoronkov’s main work is in inorganic chemistry and chemical engineering. Together with his co-workers, he made a systematic study of hydrodynamics and mass and heat transfer in absorption, fractional distillation, and molecular distillation; studied the separate stages in the manufacture of ammonia and nitric acid and the chemistry and technology of the stable isotopes of light elements; prepared heavy nitrogen and oxygen in high concentrations; and developed methods of separating mixtures and of fine purification. Much of Zhavoronkov’s work has been extensively applied in industry. Zhavoronkov has received the State Prize of the USSR (1953) and the D. I. Mendeleev Prize (1950) and the D. I. Mendeleev Gold Medal (1969). He has been awarded two Orders of Lenin and four other orders, as well as medals.