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(chē`-ē), 538–97, Chinese Buddhist scholar and founder of the T'ien-t'ai (in Japan, called Tendai, or Lotus) school of Buddhism. Chih-i produced a conceptual framework that integrated varying Indian Buddhist schools and scriptures into a coherent whole by classifying the various scriptures into five groups and eight teachings. According to Chih-i, the Avatamsaka Sutra (see Hua-yen BuddhismHua-yen Buddhism
[Chin.,=flower garland], school of Chinese Buddhism centering on the Avatamsaka Sutra [flower garland sutra]. This school has no Indian counterpart.
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) revealed the essence of the Buddha's enlightenment, but was incomprehensible to his hearers. In an effort to provide beneficial instruction, the Buddha began with simple teachings that gradually became more subtle and profound, culminating with the Lotus and Nirvana Sutras, which for Chih-i were not merely scriptures, but guidelines for salvation. Chih-i united Buddhist scriptures into a continuous revelation.


See L. Hurvitz, Chih-i (1962); K. Ch'en, Buddhism in China (1964); P. Swanson, The Foundations of T'ien T'ai Philosophy (1989).

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References in periodicals archive ?
She was defeated 16-21, 23-21, 4-21 by China's Wang Zhiyi, who is currently ranked as world number 212.
It will be a charity match involving a Chinese team - managed by the first ever Chinese footballer to play professionally in England, Fan Zhiyi - against an English Legends XI.
Fan Zhiyi, a player once dubbed the 'Chinese David Beckham', was the first player from Asia to join the Bluebirds.
Cole lays the foundation for his argument by examining pre-Chan lineage construction in the biographies of Zhiyi (538-597) and Xinxing (540-594).
Sammy Yu, vice-chairman football, also said that the only coaching involvement Fan Zhiyi might have would be in the Far East helping out the proposed Blues soccer academies.
McLeish has also dismissed reports that former China international Fan Zhiyi has been offered a coaching role at Blues as 'nonsense'.
And Yeung wants to get his pal and ex-England star McManaman voted on to the board along with former China star Fan Zhiyi to have more of an influence at St Andrews.
Thailand opponents Kitchee took a first-half lead through former Chelsea favourite Marcel Desailly -- one of three Premiership old boys to feature for the Thais alongside Fabrizio Ravanelli and Fan Zhiyi.
THE future of 107-times capped Chinese star Fan Zhiyi as a Cardiff City player appeared in doubt last night.
Fan Zhiyi serves the second game of a three-match ban.
FORMER Dundee defender Fan Zhiyi has agreed to join Cardiff City, pending his work permit being renewed.
DUNDEE defender Fan Zhiyi has denied claims that he, along with his international team-mates, threw China's World Cup opener against Costa Rica for money.