Zhu De


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Zhu De

or

Chu Teh

(both: jo͞o dŭ), 1886–1976, Chinese Communist soldier and leader. He was graduated (1911) from the Yunnan military academy and served in various positions with armies loyal to Sun Yat-senSun Yat-sen
, Mandarin Sun Wen, 1866–1925, Chinese revolutionary. He was born near Guangzhou into a farm-owning family. He attended (1879–82) an Anglican boys school in Honolulu, where he came under Western influence, particularly that of Christianity.
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. Stationed in Sichuan prov., he was a warlord from 1916 to 1920. In 1922 he went to Europe, where he met Zhou EnlaiZhou Enlai
or Chou En-lai
, 1898–1976, Chinese Communist leader. A member of a noted Mandarin family, he was educated at an American-supported school in China and a university in Japan. His involvement in radical movements led to several months imprisonment.
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 and joined the Chinese Communist party. He studied in Germany but was expelled (1925) for radical activities. He returned to China by way of the USSR, and in 1927, when Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 purged the Communists from the Kuomintang, Zhu led an uprising in Nanchang and fled with troops to S Jiangxi prov. He joined forces there with Mao ZedongMao Zedong
or Mao Tse-tung
, 1893–1976, founder of the People's Republic of China. Mao was one of the most prominent Communist theoreticians and his ideas on revolutionary struggle and guerrilla warfare have been extremely influential, especially among Third
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. When the Communist position became untenable, Zhu led (1934–35) his section of the Red Army on the long marchlong march,
Chin., Changzheng, the journey of c.6,000 mi (9,660 km) undertaken by the Red Army of China in 1934–35. When their Jiangxi prov. Soviet base was encircled by the Nationalist army of Chiang Kai-shek, some 90,000 men and women broke through the siege (Oct.
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 to the northwest. In the Second Sino-Japanese War he was commander in chief of all Communist forces, a position he retained after the establishment (Sept., 1949) of the People's Republic of China in Beijing. In 1954, Zhu left his military position to serve (1954–59) as deputy chairman of the People's Republic of China. He was chairman of the National People's Congress (1959–67), Communist China's major legislative body, until denounced during the Cultural RevolutionCultural Revolution,
1966–76, mass mobilization of urban Chinese youth inaugurated by Mao Zedong in an attempt to prevent the development of a bureaucratized Soviet style of Communism.
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. He was restored to his posts in 1971 and died in 1976.

Chu Teh

, Zhu De
1886--1976, Chinese military leader and politician; he became commander in chief of the Red Army (1931) and was chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (1959--76)
References in periodicals archive ?
Dandong is not as big as Beijing, but it has a relaxing atmosphere,'' said Zhu De, 50, a visitor from Beijing.
Among the best known Chinese leaders of the twentieth century, Sun Yat-sen, Deng Xiaoping, Zhu De, Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang are all found to be Hakkas.
So little was known about them that some correspondents assumed Mao and his best general, Zhu De, were the same person.
At various times in her tumultuous and varied career she was closely associated with Margaret Sanger, Kathe Kollwitz, and Emma Goldman, with Roger Baldwin and Harold Ickes, with Indian revolutionaries-in-exile Lajpat Rai and Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, with China's leading revolutionary writers Lu Xun, Mao Dun, and Ding Ling, with Richard Sorge and Ozaki Hotsumi (who were later executed by the Japanese as Soviet spies), and with Communist leaders Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, and Peng Dehuai (but not Mao Zedong).
It was in Yan'an, which Smedley compared to the one-horse towns of her youth in the American west, that she initiated her classic biography--or more accurately autobiography--of General Zhu De, The Great Road, which was only published some twenty years later and six years after her death, by Monthly Review Press.
Contract awarded for Zhu De expand public facilities cemetery driveway paving work
Contract awarded for zhu de hwagok paving road extension between ~ mae nam (3rd)