Rozhestvenskii, Zinovii Petrovich
Born Oct. 30 (Nov. 11) or Mar. 17 (29), 1848; died Jan. 1 (14), 1909. Russian vice admiral (1904); adjutant general (1904).
Rozhestvenskii graduated from the Naval School in 1870 and the Mikhail Artillery Academy in 1873. He fought in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and then served in the Baltic Fleet. In 1903 he became chief of Main Naval Headquarters. In April 1904, Rozhestvenskii was named commander of the 2nd Pacific Ocean Squadron. Transfer of the squadron from the Baltic Sea to the Far East was carried out from October 1904 to May 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05.
Rozhestvenskii was known for his coarseness and cruelty. During the battle of Tsushima of 1905 he was indecisive and was unable to organize the fighting of the Russian squadron, which was one of the causes of its defeat. He was wounded and taken prisoner along with the destroyer Bedovy, which surrendered to the enemy without a fight. Upon his return to Russia, Rozhestvenskii was tried by a naval court but was acquitted because he had been gravely wounded in battle. In 1906 he retired.