Zirkel, Ferdinand

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Zirkel, Ferdinand


Born May 20, 1838, in Bonn; died there June 11, 1912. German geologist and petrographer.

Zirkel graduated from the University of Bonn, where in 1861 he also earned the Ph.D. degree. Beginning in 1863 he was a professor at the University of L’vov. From 1870 to 1909 he was a professor of mineralogy in Leipzig. Zirkel studied magmatic rocks in Iceland, Scotland, Italy, France, North America, India, and Ceylon. He was the first to use the crystal-optics method for the microscopic study and identification of rocks. Zirkel was the author of a textbook on petrography (1893–94), which went through several editions and promoted further development in petrography.


Untersuchung über die mikroskopische Zusammensetzung und Struktur der Basaltgesteine. Bonn, 1870.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?