zoning

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zoning,

legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality. It has become, in the United States, a widespread method of controlling urban and suburban construction and removing congestion and other defects of existing plans. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden preceded the United States in zoning for the purpose of controlling building in new areas adjoining cities, but now use comprehensive plans. The zoning resolution adopted by New York City in 1916 was the first in the United States and has profoundly affected New York architecture, while the standard it set has been followed by other cities. By this law (since superseded) New York City was divided into use districts, area districts, and height districts. Use districts are of four classes: residential, business, retail, and unrestricted. The height and area limitations serve to insure light and air for the occupants of city buildings. Municipal zoning was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1926; its decision, which concerned the ordinance adopted by Euclid, Ohio, established zoning as a legitimate use of a municipality's police power to protect the public welfare. In the United States the state legislatures hold the power to authorize zoning, under which the separate municipalities enact their own zoning ordinances, which are typically closely integrated with a city planningcity planning,
process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
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 program. Zoning has been used to maintain the suburban, and class character of a municipality, however, and as such has been called exclusionary zoning; it has produced racial and economic segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against such zoning in directing that public housing in Chicago be spread beyond the city limits. Some state courts have gone further, declaring that developing communities have an obligation to accommodate their fair share of a region's needs for modest homes and apartments.

Bibliography

See S. J. Makielski, Jr., The Politics of Zoning: The New York Experience (1966); N. Williams, The Structure of Urban Zoning, and Its Dynamics in Urban Planning and Development (1966); S. I. Toll, Zoned America (1969); R. B. Andrews, ed., Urban Land Use Policy: The Central City (1972); R. E. Babcock and C. L. Sieman, The Zoning Game Revisited (1985); A. J. King, Law and Land Use in Chicago (1986).

Zoning

Political jurisdictions divided into geographic zones with different mixtures of allowable use, size, siting, and form of real property; typically applied in conjunction with a zoning code or review of permit applications for developments and variances. The allocation of land use by a statutory authority for planning purposes and the legal restriction that deems that part of cities be reserved for particular uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational.

zoning

[′zōn·iŋ]
(civil engineering)
Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
(crystallography)
A variation in the composition of a crystal from core to margin due to a separation of the crystal phases during its growth by loss of equilibrium in a continuous reaction series.
(electromagnetism)
The displacement of various portions of the lens or surface of a microwave reflector so the resulting phase front in the near field remains unchanged. Also known as stepping.

zoning

The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot’s building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.
References in periodicals archive ?
50) Applying this rational to nonconforming uses, it would appear municipalities held the power to "apply comprehensive zoning ordinances to eliminate nonconforming uses retroactively.
Moreover, section 704 requires that challenges to local zoning ordinances be heard by the courts rather than the FCC.
In November 1990, Maricopa County granted Arizona Skies senior citizen housing status under a local zoning ordinance and authorized it to restrict residency to persons over 55 years of age.
He also said the amendment to the zoning ordinance that the Legal Affairs Committee has been working on for nine months has "significant flaws that would make Leominster unattractive to businesses.
The zoning ordinances therefore spell out regulated land use as well as the height, bulk, and setback of permitted structures.
The only direct experience that most people have with land-use regulation is with zoning ordinances.
The company intends to build depending on zoning ordinances a combination of high end single family homes, condominiums and time share/vacation villas on the property.
The city paid the consulting firm $75,000 to review the zoning ordinances and to make recommendations.
Other presentations included a look at planning and zoning board membership and functions, the municipal master plan, zoning ordinances, nonconforming uses, vested rights, litigation and the Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act.
The City Council vote came the day the city received word from the Los Angeles County Registrar-Recorder's Office that the three referendum petitions challenging zoning ordinances have the required signatures to be placed on the ballot.
AIG), today announced a first of its kind insurance policy to protect commercial and residential real estate developers and lenders from losses due to changing zoning ordinances.
Many of the older neighborhoods throughout the state have antiquated zoning ordinances, designed by lawyers, harking back to a time when commercial and industrial uses were a prime use of urban land.