zoning

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zoning,

legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality. It has become, in the United States, a widespread method of controlling urban and suburban construction and removing congestion and other defects of existing plans. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden preceded the United States in zoning for the purpose of controlling building in new areas adjoining cities, but now use comprehensive plans. The zoning resolution adopted by New York City in 1916 was the first in the United States and has profoundly affected New York architecture, while the standard it set has been followed by other cities. By this law (since superseded) New York City was divided into use districts, area districts, and height districts. Use districts are of four classes: residential, business, retail, and unrestricted. The height and area limitations serve to insure light and air for the occupants of city buildings. Municipal zoning was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1926; its decision, which concerned the ordinance adopted by Euclid, Ohio, established zoning as a legitimate use of a municipality's police power to protect the public welfare. In the United States the state legislatures hold the power to authorize zoning, under which the separate municipalities enact their own zoning ordinances, which are typically closely integrated with a city planningcity planning,
process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
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 program. Zoning has been used to maintain the suburban, and class character of a municipality, however, and as such has been called exclusionary zoning; it has produced racial and economic segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against such zoning in directing that public housing in Chicago be spread beyond the city limits. Some state courts have gone further, declaring that developing communities have an obligation to accommodate their fair share of a region's needs for modest homes and apartments.

Bibliography

See S. J. Makielski, Jr., The Politics of Zoning: The New York Experience (1966); N. Williams, The Structure of Urban Zoning, and Its Dynamics in Urban Planning and Development (1966); S. I. Toll, Zoned America (1969); R. B. Andrews, ed., Urban Land Use Policy: The Central City (1972); R. E. Babcock and C. L. Sieman, The Zoning Game Revisited (1985); A. J. King, Law and Land Use in Chicago (1986).

Zoning

Political jurisdictions divided into geographic zones with different mixtures of allowable use, size, siting, and form of real property; typically applied in conjunction with a zoning code or review of permit applications for developments and variances. The allocation of land use by a statutory authority for planning purposes and the legal restriction that deems that part of cities be reserved for particular uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational.

zoning

[′zōn·iŋ]
(civil engineering)
Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
(crystallography)
A variation in the composition of a crystal from core to margin due to a separation of the crystal phases during its growth by loss of equilibrium in a continuous reaction series.
(electromagnetism)
The displacement of various portions of the lens or surface of a microwave reflector so the resulting phase front in the near field remains unchanged. Also known as stepping.

zoning

The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot’s building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.
References in periodicals archive ?
But Carpio said looking at the buildings in Manila, most have constructed without following what is stated under the Zoning Ordinance.
To provide a clearer explanation of how zoning ordinances work, this Note uses Yuba City, California, to illustrate how one determines whether a use is permitted and what level of review is required to permit the use.
Public regulation of land use through zoning ordinances and other tools, and private restrictive covenants often act independently of one another.
In a slightly different situation, if a purchaser refuses to complete performance of a contract where a zoning ordinance has been enacted after entering into a contract not providing for future zoning ordinances, a court may still compel performance.
Mobile Home Parks and Exclusionary Zoning: A Framework for Analyzing Zoning Ordinances.
Consequently, the middle-income homeowners turned once again to the creation of a zoning ordinance for Houston.
The Douglass Township zoning ordinance was supposed to ensure that access.
Because businesses under the city's zoning ordinance are required to provide one parking for every 300 square feet of floor space, he said, the proposal would include those businesses that are just about 5,000 square feet in size - a common size for what is considered a small business.
I look forward to serving our community and the board by interpreting development proposals and zoning ordinances in our area.
Regarding the authors' explanation of why mandatory inclusionary housing ordinances require limited government resources "primarily because the cost burden is borne by the developer, and ultimately passed on to the buyers of the units sold at market rate," the authors are correct about inclusionary zoning ordinances requiring minimal government resources.
The court then held that because FAS owned both shores of the stream, FAS held title to the entire streambed, making the parcel one continuous lot Next, the court noted that the zoning ordinances define a lot's area as the area "contiguous, not separated by public roadway, of a lot between its front, rear, and side lot lines" Because the definition expressly excludes public roads but does not mention navigable tributaries, the court held that the Johnson Creek streambed should be included in the area of FAS's lot and likewise in the lot's lakeshore frontage.
The court case involved the Planning Board's denial of Levin's site plan application even though it complied with all of Hamilton Township's long-standing zoning ordinances.