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legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality. It has become, in the United States, a widespread method of controlling urban and suburban construction and removing congestion and other defects of existing plans. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden preceded the United States in zoning for the purpose of controlling building in new areas adjoining cities, but now use comprehensive plans. The zoning resolution adopted by New York City in 1916 was the first in the United States and has profoundly affected New York architecture, while the standard it set has been followed by other cities. By this law (since superseded) New York City was divided into use districts, area districts, and height districts. Use districts are of four classes: residential, business, retail, and unrestricted. The height and area limitations serve to insure light and air for the occupants of city buildings. Municipal zoning was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1926; its decision, which concerned the ordinance adopted by Euclid, Ohio, established zoning as a legitimate use of a municipality's police power to protect the public welfare. In the United States the state legislatures hold the power to authorize zoning, under which the separate municipalities enact their own zoning ordinances, which are typically closely integrated with a city planningcity planning,
process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
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 program. Zoning has been used to maintain the suburban, and class character of a municipality, however, and as such has been called exclusionary zoning; it has produced racial and economic segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against such zoning in directing that public housing in Chicago be spread beyond the city limits. Some state courts have gone further, declaring that developing communities have an obligation to accommodate their fair share of a region's needs for modest homes and apartments.


See S. J. Makielski, Jr., The Politics of Zoning: The New York Experience (1966); N. Williams, The Structure of Urban Zoning, and Its Dynamics in Urban Planning and Development (1966); S. I. Toll, Zoned America (1969); R. B. Andrews, ed., Urban Land Use Policy: The Central City (1972); R. E. Babcock and C. L. Sieman, The Zoning Game Revisited (1985); A. J. King, Law and Land Use in Chicago (1986).


Political jurisdictions divided into geographic zones with different mixtures of allowable use, size, siting, and form of real property; typically applied in conjunction with a zoning code or review of permit applications for developments and variances. The allocation of land use by a statutory authority for planning purposes and the legal restriction that deems that part of cities be reserved for particular uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational.


(civil engineering)
Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
A variation in the composition of a crystal from core to margin due to a separation of the crystal phases during its growth by loss of equilibrium in a continuous reaction series.
The displacement of various portions of the lens or surface of a microwave reflector so the resulting phase front in the near field remains unchanged. Also known as stepping.


The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot’s building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nearly three decades of history stand between The Economics of Zoning Laws and Zoning Rules
I feel it is important that the new review of our zoning laws be done in a compact period of time.
In the meantime, Councilman Dennis Zine said regardless of what Delgadillo decides to do next, a conclusion needs to be reached on whether zoning laws are going to be enforced.
It's important to check your local zoning laws because some areas prohibit home businesses, while others place heavy restrictions on them," says Ormond.
If we don't enforce our zoning laws, we would have chaos when it comes to planning and where certain buildings can be located.
On December 27, 1994, Michigan Governor John Engler signed into law three bills exempting home music instruction and in-home tutoring from local zoning laws in all Michigan municipalities.
McLamore, who oversees 17 offices throughout Maryland that monitor and assist small businesses, says it's imperative for home-based entrepreneurs to learn about their community's zoning laws.
He has little quarrel with the straightforward zoning laws of the 1920s.
The SIGN*BLINDS window treatments, incorporating proprietary digital airbrush technology, enables full-color business graphics, corporate logos, and cost-effective window signage for businesses, as well as providing additional advertising space that circumvents strict zoning laws limiting outside signs on buildings.
Local leaders have urged Los Angeles County officials to enforce zoning laws on the property south of San Martinez Road and east of Saint Lawrence Street - zoned for residential use but described by some as an illegal tow yard.
Those that remain may be problematic--so small that zoning laws prohibit a building large enough to amortize sky-high construction and acquisition costs.
The photoluminescence properties of window treatments incorporating this technology enables cost-effective window signage for businesses, as well as additional advertising space that circumvents strict zoning laws limiting outside signs on buildings.