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legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality. It has become, in the United States, a widespread method of controlling urban and suburban construction and removing congestion and other defects of existing plans. Great Britain, Germany, and Sweden preceded the United States in zoning for the purpose of controlling building in new areas adjoining cities, but now use comprehensive plans. The zoning resolution adopted by New York City in 1916 was the first in the United States and has profoundly affected New York architecture, while the standard it set has been followed by other cities. By this law (since superseded) New York City was divided into use districts, area districts, and height districts. Use districts are of four classes: residential, business, retail, and unrestricted. The height and area limitations serve to insure light and air for the occupants of city buildings. Municipal zoning was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1926; its decision, which concerned the ordinance adopted by Euclid, Ohio, established zoning as a legitimate use of a municipality's police power to protect the public welfare. In the United States the state legislatures hold the power to authorize zoning, under which the separate municipalities enact their own zoning ordinances, which are typically closely integrated with a city planningcity planning,
process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
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 program. Zoning has been used to maintain the suburban, and class character of a municipality, however, and as such has been called exclusionary zoning; it has produced racial and economic segregation. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against such zoning in directing that public housing in Chicago be spread beyond the city limits. Some state courts have gone further, declaring that developing communities have an obligation to accommodate their fair share of a region's needs for modest homes and apartments.


See S. J. Makielski, Jr., The Politics of Zoning: The New York Experience (1966); N. Williams, The Structure of Urban Zoning, and Its Dynamics in Urban Planning and Development (1966); S. I. Toll, Zoned America (1969); R. B. Andrews, ed., Urban Land Use Policy: The Central City (1972); R. E. Babcock and C. L. Sieman, The Zoning Game Revisited (1985); A. J. King, Law and Land Use in Chicago (1986).


Political jurisdictions divided into geographic zones with different mixtures of allowable use, size, siting, and form of real property; typically applied in conjunction with a zoning code or review of permit applications for developments and variances. The allocation of land use by a statutory authority for planning purposes and the legal restriction that deems that part of cities be reserved for particular uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational.


(civil engineering)
Designation and reservation under a master plan of land use for light and heavy industry, dwellings, offices, and other buildings; use is enforced by restrictions on types of buildings in each zone.
A variation in the composition of a crystal from core to margin due to a separation of the crystal phases during its growth by loss of equilibrium in a continuous reaction series.
The displacement of various portions of the lens or surface of a microwave reflector so the resulting phase front in the near field remains unchanged. Also known as stepping.


The control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot’s building coverage to open space, the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is a principal instrument in implementing a master plan.
References in periodicals archive ?
When Congress passed RLUIPA, Washington usurped local governments' authority and ignored a long-held and fundamental principle of zoning laws -- that local land use decisions should be made by local government in consultation with local communities," said Marci Hamilton, J.
The award-winning firm, established in 1995, is noted for the design of 45 Wall Street, the first large-scale office-to-residential conversion to go into construction under the new zoning laws for lower Manhattan.
Although the organization is licensed by the state, Simi Valley zoning laws don't allow keeping wild animals within city limits.
The Department of Planning's proposed zoning laws may include incentives for landlords who, if operating a building on either side of the High Line, agree to sell their air rights.
The American Center for Law and Justice, an international public interest law firm specializing in constitutional law, announced today it has filed a federal lawsuit against the City of Inkster, Michigan charging the city with using zoning laws to exclude a Christian church from locating on property it owns.
From the historic beginnings of New York City to land use and zoning laws, Metro Zone, a seminar on wheels, gives professionals the comprehensive information they need to make sound real estate decisions.
but there are sound reasons why planning and zoning laws and hearing procedures are as rigorous and deliberative as they are.
local zoning laws and assist in your decision about whether
The Town denied the request for the variance, arguing that the street on the 1890 subdivision map was not a "street" in terms of current zoning laws.
Their wish list included things like municipal parking garages, maybe some pedestrian bridges across the boulevard, and most certainly some help in changing zoning laws, but not new street lighting.
This feature is also useful when zoning laws prevent mechanical down tilt.
As luck would have it the whole arrangement was made unnecessary when zoning laws were changed two months later