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According to the last author, there is a defined pattern in the frequency of dispersal syndromes where zoochory is the most frequent form in the species of Neotropical rainforests.
Figure 4(b) shows that species with zoochory can colonize the foreland in the earliest succession stage as well.
The seeds are very small and are normally disseminated through water and wind, as zoochory or animal dispersal represent too great a waste.
Dispersal syndromes: Anemochory occurred in 32 (58.2 %) species overall, followed by autochory in 17 species (30.9 %), and zoochory in six species (10.9 %).
For each species found in the plots, we searched the literature for information relating to: the functional groups (pioneer or non-pioneer) (sensu WHITMORE, 1989); and dispersal syndrome (zoochory, anemochory and autochory) (sensu Pijl, 1982).
Hence, species with different structures form different dispersal syndromes, including anemochory [10-12], zoochory [13-23], autochory [24, 25], ombrohydrochory [7,25], and barochory [26].
This means that in many studies on zoochory mortality is confounded with dormancy.
Considering the species with determined syndromes (123), the zoochory predominated in all habits, corresponding to 69%, followed by autochory with 20% and anemochory with 11% (Figure 2).
In tropical forests, the most frequent dispersal syndrome found is zoochory, i.e.