chemical substances for controlling harmful vertebrate animals, chiefly rodents (rodenticides) and birds (avicides).
Zoocides belong to various chemical groups. In most cases, compounds that have a lethal effect when they enter the animal’s stomach are used (zinc phosphide, gliftor, crnaphthylthiourea, zookumarin, and ratindan). Zoocides are used predominantly in the form of poisoned baits. Insoluble poisons (zinc phosphide) are applied to cereals with vegetable oil and to root crops and green parts of plants with water. To destroy rodents that are pests of fields, orchards, and truck gardens, food baits poisoned with zinc phosphide or gliftor are recommended. Effective chemicals for control of rodents in animal husbandry buildings, food warehouses, and haystacks include zookumarin and ratindan. Methods have been found for using these poisons in animal husbandry buildings without first removing the animals. However, food products must be removed from warehouses without fail. In residential buildings food baits poisoned with crnaphthylthiourea are safest. For control of birds (for example, excessive numbers of pigeons or sparrows) a preparation with a narcotizing effect—alphachloralose—is used.
To control field rodents, every year a total of 15-18 million hectares of land in the USSR is treated with zoocides. Powerful poisons present a danger to persons and beneficial animals; therefore it is necessary to observe strictly the recommendations set forth in instructions for storage, use, and transportation of zoocides and the rules of safety in working with them. New, more effective zoocides that are safe for beneficial animals are being sought. Of promise are preparations that cause infertility in harmful rodents and birds and the combination in bait of poisonous substances with substances that attract pests (attractants).
REFERENCESMefnikov, N. N.Khimiia pestitsidov. Moscow, 1968. Page 494.
Poliakov, I. la.Vrednye gryzuny i bor’ba s nimi, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1968. Page 254.
Fourth Vertebrate Pest Conference, March 3, 4, 5, 1970: Proceedings. West Sacramento, Calif., 1970. Page 204.
I. IA. POLIAKOV