Zoonoses


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Zoonoses

Infections of humans caused by the transmission of disease agents that naturally live in animals. People become infected when they unwittingly intrude into the life cycle of the disease agent and become unnatural hosts. Zoonotic helminthic diseases, caused by parasitic worms, involve many species of helminths, including nematodes (roundworms), trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms), and acanthocephalans (thorny-headed worms). Helminthic zoonoses may be contracted from domestic animals such as pets, from edible animals such as seafood, or from wild animals. Fortunately, most kinds of zoonotic helminthic infections are caused by rare human parasites.

The best-recognized example of a food-borne zoonotic helminthic disease is trichinosis, caused by the trinchina worm, Trichinella spiralis, a tiny nematode. People commonly become infected by eating inadequately prepared pork, but a sizable proportion of victims now contract the worms by eating the meat of wild carnivores, such as bear. Trichinosis is usually a mild disease, manifested by symptoms and signs of intestinal and muscular inflammation, but in heavy infections damage done by the larvae to the heart and central nervous system can be life threatening. Because of public awareness about properly cooking pork and federal regulations about feeding pigs, trichinosis has become uncommon in the United States. People who eat inadequately prepared marine fish may become infected with larval nematodes. Of the many potential (and rare) helminthic zoonoses from wild animals in the United States, Baylisascaris procyonis is particularly dangerous. The nematode is highly prevalent in raccoons, the definitive host. See Medical parasitology, Nemata

Zoonoses

 

infectious diseases whose causative agents adapted in the course of evolution to parasitism in certain animal species. Zoonoses include cattle plague, hog cholera, and pasteurellosis. Zoonoses may arise among human beings under certain sanitary and economic conditions that favor a given mechanism of transmission of the causative agent. However, the causative agents of zoonoses, in contrast to zooanthroponoses, cannot circulate among human beings. Man represents a biological dead end for them because he is not part of the epizootic process and does not participate in the causative agent’s evolution as a parasitic species.

zoonoses

[‚zō·ə′nō·sēz]
(biology)
Diseases which are biologically adapted to and normally found in lower animals but which under some conditions also infect humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
The report, Mapping of Poverty and Likely Zoonoses Hotspots, was developed with support from the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID).
The report studied so-called endemic zoonoses which cause the vast majority of illness and death in poor countries.
We did not mention all zoonoses that could be transmitted in a bedroom, such as toxoplasmosis or ringworm, because we could not identify publications specifically documenting contamination in that environment.
The District of General Pueyrredon counts with the Municipal Centre of Zoonoses (MCZ) which performs dog and cat castrations and also shelters stray and biting dogs, among others activities.
Worldwide, around 75% of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, that is, infections transmissible between animals and man.
Reverse zoonoses - diseases created in the human world and passed onto animals - are not going to go away, said Dr Loeffler.
Most zoonoses come from wild animals, especially mammals, which are the most closely related species to humans.
Commenting on other zoonoses, the report said that while rare, they had a severe impact on human health.
Zoonoses are often spread by international trade, by cross-species infections where there is environmental degradation in developing countries (particularly in tropical regions), and by the movement of human rural populations into big cities.
Zoonoses include diseases that lead to numerous sick days, needless deaths and large public health costs in the EU every year like salmonella, campylobacter, listeria and toxin producing E.
We deal primarily with human health and public health issues at the CDC,'' said Chris Paddock, medical officer with the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch of the CDC in Atlanta, Ga.
Although they normally pose little threat to healthy people, zoonoses can be life-threatening to victims of acquired immuniodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).