Zoonoses


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

Zoonoses

Infections of humans caused by the transmission of disease agents that naturally live in animals. People become infected when they unwittingly intrude into the life cycle of the disease agent and become unnatural hosts. Zoonotic helminthic diseases, caused by parasitic worms, involve many species of helminths, including nematodes (roundworms), trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms), and acanthocephalans (thorny-headed worms). Helminthic zoonoses may be contracted from domestic animals such as pets, from edible animals such as seafood, or from wild animals. Fortunately, most kinds of zoonotic helminthic infections are caused by rare human parasites.

The best-recognized example of a food-borne zoonotic helminthic disease is trichinosis, caused by the trinchina worm, Trichinella spiralis, a tiny nematode. People commonly become infected by eating inadequately prepared pork, but a sizable proportion of victims now contract the worms by eating the meat of wild carnivores, such as bear. Trichinosis is usually a mild disease, manifested by symptoms and signs of intestinal and muscular inflammation, but in heavy infections damage done by the larvae to the heart and central nervous system can be life threatening. Because of public awareness about properly cooking pork and federal regulations about feeding pigs, trichinosis has become uncommon in the United States. People who eat inadequately prepared marine fish may become infected with larval nematodes. Of the many potential (and rare) helminthic zoonoses from wild animals in the United States, Baylisascaris procyonis is particularly dangerous. The nematode is highly prevalent in raccoons, the definitive host. See Medical parasitology, Nemata

Zoonoses

 

infectious diseases whose causative agents adapted in the course of evolution to parasitism in certain animal species. Zoonoses include cattle plague, hog cholera, and pasteurellosis. Zoonoses may arise among human beings under certain sanitary and economic conditions that favor a given mechanism of transmission of the causative agent. However, the causative agents of zoonoses, in contrast to zooanthroponoses, cannot circulate among human beings. Man represents a biological dead end for them because he is not part of the epizootic process and does not participate in the causative agent’s evolution as a parasitic species.

zoonoses

[‚zō·ə′nō·sēz]
(biology)
Diseases which are biologically adapted to and normally found in lower animals but which under some conditions also infect humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of the most common zoonoses in the CBDV during 15 consecutive years (from 2002 to 2016).
Dentre as zoonoses mais importantes transmitidas por caes e gatos podemos destacar a raiva, a leishmaniose, a leptospirose, a toxoplasmose e as verminoses.
One Health and the neglected zoonoses: Turning rhetoric into reality.
Zoonoses comprised the primary focus for this review with the overall objective to determine the status of the one health approach and its applications to zoonoses, using scholarly peer-reviewed literature that has been published since the global adoption of the concept in 1984 (for study purposes, January 1, 1984, until December 31, 2012).
A person was considered an expert in the field when he/she met at least three of the following four conditions: 1) demonstrated relevant experience in zoonoses research, surveillance, prevention, and control in the last five years in Colombia; 2) worked as a qualified professional in public health disciplines; 3) participated as a speaker in conferences or congresses on zoonoses; and 4) published at least one scientific paper or carried out a study on zoonoses in Colombia.
The report, Mapping of Poverty and Likely Zoonoses Hotspots, was developed with support from the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID).
The report studied so-called endemic zoonoses which cause the vast majority of illness and death in poor countries.
For some parasitic zoonoses, contact with pets may not be a major source of infection.
"The university is a major player in advancing the research base of the North West and in making our region an excellent location in which to undertake research that impacts on world health." Worldwide, around 75% of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, that is, infections transmissible between animals and man.
Most zoonoses come from wild animals, especially mammals, which are the most closely related species to humans.
* Describe how zoonoses became prevalent in human society