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Zululand(zo͞o`lo͞olănd'), historic region and home of the Zulus, c.10,000 sq mi (25,900 sq km), NE KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Zululand is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east, by Mozambique on the north, and by Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) on the west. The terrain rises from a low coastal plain to the foothills of the Drakensberg Range. There are several game and forest reserves.
Although some corn is grown, the Zulu economy depends primarily on cattle raising. Zululand's two major commercial crops, sugarcane and cotton, are generally cultivated on white-owned coastal plantations. Sugar milling and some paper making are virtually the region's only industries. There is also considerable exploitation of wattle and eucalyptus.
The Zulus, who belong to the southern branch of the Nguni-speaking peoples, constitute the majority of the population, and Zulu is the chief language. Many Zulus still live as members of a traditional extended family in a fenced compound (kraal), headed by the oldest man. Members of the family occupy beehive-shaped huts in the enclosure of the kraal, within which the cattle are kept penned. The prolonged absence of a majority of the men, many of whom are employed in the distant cities and mines of South Africa has, however, weakened Zulu society. The name Zulu originally denoted a people that, migrating southward, reached the area around the Tugela River in the late 17th cent.
The Zulus became historically important in the early 19th cent. under ShakaShaka
, d. 1828, paramount chief (1818–28) of the Zulus. He organized an army of some 40,000, and after reducing many enemy peoples to vassalage, he subjugated all of what is now KwaZulu-Natal. Shaka was murdered by his half-brother, Dingane. His name is also spelled Chaka.
..... Click the link for more information. , whose conquests reduced many neighboring people to vassalage and caused others to flee. His successors soon encountered the Boer settlers migrating north into Natal (see KwaZulu-NatalKwaZulu-Natal
, province (2011 pop. 10,267,300), 36,433 sq mi (94,361 sq km), E South Africa, on the Indian Ocean. Formerly Natal province, in the post-apartheid constitution of 1994 it was renamed KwaZulu-Natal.
..... Click the link for more information. ) as part of the Great TrekTrek, Great
, the journey by Afrikaner farmers (Boers) who left the Cape Colony to escape British domination and eventually founded Natal, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State. Trek is an Afrikaans term, originally meaning a journey by ox wagon.
..... Click the link for more information. . The Zulu chief Dingane ambushed and killed about 500 Boers in 1838. In revenge the forces of Andries PretoriusPretorius, Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
, 1799–1853, Boer (Afrikaner) leader. He was elected (1838) commandant general of the Boers of Natal and in that year defeated a large force of Zulus at Blood River.
..... Click the link for more information. killed about 3,000 Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. Subsequent Boer intervention in Zulu domestic affairs led in 1840 to the overthrow of Dingane and the crowning of Mpande, who became a vassal of the Boer republic of Natal.
The British, who succeeded the Boers as rulers of Natal in 1843, encountered the hostility of Mpande's son, CetshwayoCetshwayo,
, or Cetewayo
, c.1836–1884, king of the Zulus. Cetshwayo gained ascendancy in 1856, when he defeated in battle and killed his younger brother, who was the favorite of their father, Umpanda.
..... Click the link for more information. . After he ignored an ultimatum that he submit to British rule, Great Britain launched an attack on Zululand in 1878 and, although suffering several grave defeats, finally triumphed in July, 1879. Faced with continuing Zulu rebellions, the British annexed Zululand in 1887; it became part of Natal in 1897.
in 20th-century South African history, territory that was set aside under apartheid for black South Africans and slated for eventual independence. Ten bantustans (later generally referred to as homelands), covering 14% of the country's land, were created from the
..... Click the link for more information. (black "homeland") designated by the government of South Africa, in accordance with the Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959, to be the Zulu homeland was initially named Zululand, but was soon renamed KwaZulu [land of the Zulus] after it was established in 1970. KwaZulu was made up of isolated tracts of land, forming only a part of historical Zululand, and was neither geographically unified nor territorially homogeneous. The area north of the Tugela River, where the largest tracts of Zulu territory lie, formed the hub of KwaZulu. KwaZulu was nominally self-governing from 1977; UlundiUlundi
[Zulu,=the high place], town, part and seat of Ulundi local municipality (2011 pop. 187,271), KwaZulu-Natal prov., SE South Africa. Situated on a hill overlooking the White Mfolozi River, the town possesses a modern administrative complex that is among the largest in the
..... Click the link for more information. was the capital from 1980. Slightly more than half of South Africa's Zulu population lived in KwaZulu, which also had Xhosa, Sotho, and Swazi minorities.
The Inkatha movement, an indigenous association whose membership initially consisted primarily of Zulu migrant workers, played an important and controversial role in the political life of South Africa in the late 20th cent. Inkatha and its leader, Mangosuthu Gatsha ButheleziButhelezi, Mangosuthu Gatsha
(Ashpenaz Nathan Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi) , 1928–, South African political leader. A Zulu chief, he served as chief minister of the bantustan KwaZulu (1970–94, initially as head of the Zululand Territorial Authority; see Zululand) but
..... Click the link for more information. , who was the chief minister of KwaZulu, were accused of collaborating with apartheid forces in the South African government, and long-standing hostilities between Inkatha and the African National Congress (ANC) led to bloodshed in the black townships of Natal. In Apr., 1994, just before national elections, Buthelezi agreed to abandon a boycott and have his Inkatha Freedom party participate. In return, the KwaZulu region was given autonomy under Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini, with Buthelezi as his prime minister, while at the same time being incorporated into the new KwaZulu-Natal province. Attempting to stay above politics, the king subsequently distanced himself from Inkatha. Violence and political feuding between Zulu supporters of Buthelezi and Zulu partisans of the ANC continued in the mid-1990s but largely subsided in the last years of the decade.
See S. Taylor, Shaka's Children: A History of the Zulu People (1996).