Zygomycetes


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Zygomycetes

A class of terrestrial fungi in the phylum Zygomycota, comprising organisms commonly known as the bread molds. Sexual reproduction is by the formation of zygospores. Asexual reproduction is by endospores (sporangiospores) produced in sporangia, or uni- or multispored sporangiola or merosporangia, conidia, yeast cells, chlamydospores, or arthrospores. These fungi occur as haustorial (having food-absorbing cells in the host) or nonhaustorial parasites of fungi, plants, or animals (including humans), or as saprobes, especially in soil or dung; but other substrates with soluble nutrients may also contain Zygomycetes. Some taxa are endo- or ectomycorrhizal on vascular plants.

The mature spore-bearing structures are dry and readily dispersed by air currents, or are wet and are distributed by direct contact with small animals or are ingested by animals and disseminated in their feces. Water droplets also may disperse the spores or the intact spore-bearing structures.

Classification is based on mode of nutrition, morphology of the zygospore (if formed), type of asexual reproduction, branching pattern of sporophores, and frequency of septa (if formed) and septal morphology. Zygomycetes are currently placed in seven orders: Dimargaritales, Endogonales, Entomophthorales, Glomales, Kickxellales, Mucorales, and Zoopagales. Zygomycetes are distributed worldwide, although many taxa are rarely encountered; they may be relatively common on a particular host or substrate. See Eumycota, Fungi

Zygomycetes

 

a subclass of lower fungi of the class Phycomycetes. The mycelium is well developed and is usu-ally not divided into individual cells by transverse septa, except for the reproductive organs, which are often separated by septa. Zygomycetes reproduce by a sexual process of zygogamy and asexually by means of nonmotile sporangiospores that develop in sporangia, which are elevated above the mycelium on sporangiophores. In many Zygomycetes there is a transition to reproduction by means of conidia. Zygomycetes are divided into several orders, the most common of which are Mucorales and Entomophthorales. Some mycologists include the little-studied fungus orders Zoopagales and Eccrinales in the Zygomycetes.

Zygomycetes

[‚zī·gō‚mī′sēd·ēz]
(mycology)
A class of fungi in the division Eumycetes.
References in periodicals archive ?
Similarly genus Aspergillus was abundantly isolated in present study along with Fusarium and Zygomycetes. One other study conducted by Sohail et al.
El complejo Entomophaga grylli Fresenius 1856) Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infectando saltamontes (Orthoptera: Acrididae) en Ilheus (Bahia), Brasil): notas y nuevos registros.
Growth tolerance of Zygomycetes Mucor indicus in orange peel hydrolysate without detoxication.
Very few clinical cases caused by the Entomophthorales Zygomycetes have been reported.
The last reviews on fungal diversity in a variety of peatlands in Europe, North and South America (Thormann, 2006; Thormann & Rice, 2007) report 601 species of fungi identified globally, being Ascomycetes the largest group with 276 species (46%), followed by Basidiomycetes (243 species, 40%), Zygomycetes (55 species, 9%), and Chytridiomycetes (26 species, 4%).
Organisms of the Class Zygomycetes were first documented by Ribes et al in humans in 1800.
Therefore, to overcome these problems, zygomycetes such as Cunninghamella, Mucor, and Mortierella are often mentioned in the literature as alternatives of GLA producers due to their desirable characteristics such as high productivity of the GLA, short process cycle, and easier scalability.
Sarris et al., "The olive miil wastewater as substrate for single cell oil production by Zygomycetes," Journal of Biotechnology, vol.