Zyrian


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Zyrian

 

(also Komi), the language of the Komi, who live in the Komi ASSR. It belongs to the Permian subgroup of the Finno-Ugric language family. It is spoken by 266,000 persons (1970, census). Zyrian has had a writing system since the 14th century, although it was based on various dialects and orthographies. A literary language finally took shape after the Great October Socialist Revolution on the basis of the Syktyvkar-Vychegda sub-dialect, which occupies an intermediate position among the subdialects. Zyrian uses the Russian alphabet, supplemented by the two letters ö and i. The phonology is marked by the absence of emphasis on stressed vowels and by the presence of the soft lisping consonants s’ and z’ and the four affricates č, dz, tš, and dž. The vocabulary is characterized by an abundance of monosyllabic words (roots), and the morphology is characterized by a single declension and conjugation. A republic newspaper, three raion newspapers, a magazine, textbooks, sociopolitical literature, and fiction are published in Zyrian.

REFERENCES

Sovremennyi komi iazyk, parts 1–2. Syktyvkar, 1955–64.
Lytkin, V. I. “Komi-zyrianskii iazyk.” In the collection Zakonomernosti razvitiia literaturnykh iazykov narodov SSSR v sovetskuiu epokhu [vol. 2]. Moscow, 1969.
Timushev, D. A., and N. A. Kolegova. Komi-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1961.
Russko-komi slovar’. Edited by D. A. Timushev. Syktyvkar, 1966.

V. I. LYTKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Among the two hundred languages, there are several of the Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic languages as well: Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Karelian (with dialects), Zyrian, Votyak, Cheremis, Vogul and Ostyak (with dialects), and Mordvin of course.
The first one of these is a short manuscript, probably from the first half of the 18th century, (7) which contains Hungarian, Ostyak, Vogul, Zyrian, Tatar and Mordvin expressions with their Latin counterparts.
Zyrian Zyrah, aged 21, of Holmsdale Road, Foleshill, Coventry, driving with an incorrect licence, using a vehicle without insurance, fined pounds 200.
Three of them are Uralic: Hungarian, Permic Zyrian Komi and Samoyedic Nenets.
Vaszolyi: first, a large collection of his youth was completed by the publication of the 3rd volume of "Zyriaenica" (Specimina Sibirica, Tomus XIX, Savariae; the 1st and 2nd volume were published as Tomus XV and XVII in 1999 and 2001 of the same series, respectively--with texts in Zyrian original and in English translation together with notes and comments also in English) and secondly, another book of him titled "Ausztralia bennszulott nyelvei" (The Aboriginal Languages of Australia) appeared in Hungary.
In the meantime, the Ugric theory, that is, the belief that Hungarian, Vogul and Ostyak are genetically related, was extended to include the languages of northern Europe (such as Finnish, Lapp, Mordvin, Zyrian etc.
The pattern inaugurated by Saints Cyril and Methodius was repeated by St Stephen of Perm who evangelized the Zyrians, and St Innocent of Irkutsk who baptized the tribes around Lake Baikal.