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in a political sense, renunciation of high public office, usually by a monarch. Some abdications have been purely voluntary and resulted in no loss of prestige. For instance, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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, who abdicated for religious motives, remained influential until his death, and Philip VPhilip V,
1683–1746, king of Spain (1700–1746), first Bourbon on the Spanish throne. A grandson of Louis XIV of France, he was titular duke of Anjou before Charles II of Spain designated him as his successor.
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 of Spain actually resumed the throne after abdicating. In Japan it has not been uncommon for the ruler to retire voluntarily to a life of religious contemplation, assured of a special title and many honors. However, most abdications have amounted to a confession of a failure in policy and are only the final and formal renunciation of an authority that events have already taken away. In the Chinese Empire forced abdications were frequent, the empire itself ending with the abdication of the boy ruler Hsuan T'ung in 1912 (see Pu YiPu Yi
or Henry Pu-yi,
Manchu Aisin Gioro, 1906–67, last emperor (1908–12) of China, under the reign name Hsuan T'ung. After his abdication, the new republican government granted him a large government pension and permitted him to live in the
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). Since 1688, when the English Parliament declared James II to have abdicated by reason of flight and subversion of the constitution, abdication by a British ruler without parliamentary consent has been forbidden. When Edward VIIIEdward VIII,
1894–1972, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1936), known in later years as the duke of Windsor; eldest son of George V. He attended the naval colleges at Osborne and Dartmouth and Magdalen College, Oxford. In 1911 he was made prince of Wales.
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 of England abdicated in 1936 in order to marry an American divorcee (his ministers having refused to approve the marriage), the abdication was given legal effect by an act of Parliament. Though several written constitutions contain provisions for abdication, there are few uniformly accepted rules for dealing with it. Defeat and political chaos following World Wars I and II forced the abdication of many rulers, most notably Emperor William II of Germany, Farouk of Egypt, and Leopold III of Belgium.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The cabinet appointed a panel that prepared and sent to the Diet -- as Japan's legislature is known -- a bill carving out a one-time exception that would allow Akihito to abdicate. Special legislation was passed in June 2017, but the Imperial Household Law itself was not amended.
The Emperor Emeritus had indicated his desire to abdicate in a rare address made to the Japanese populace around three years ago, citing concerns related to his advanced age.
The 85-year-old has been given legal permission to abdicate after saying he felt unable to fulfil his role because of his age and declining health.
"I certainly don't think he's preparing to hand over to William or to abdicate himself.
But he did not explicA[degrees] itly say he wanted to abdicate as he is barred from making politiA[degrees] cal statements.
Even expressing his desire to abdicate the throne would be seen as interfering too strongly in the Japanese political process, given that it would require amending the nation's laws.
Japanese Emperor Akihito, who has spent much of his time on the throne trying to heal the wounds of World War Two, intends to abdicate in a few years, public broadcaster NHK said on Wednesday, a step that would be unprecedented in modern Japan.
The lawsuit contends that while the province was entitled to reduce duplication and overlap by participating in the federal assessment process, it was not entitled to abdicate its decision-making power over the project.
I don't want her to abdicate. I want the complete dissolution of the monarchy.
Norman Lloyd-Edwards, who was Lord Lieutenant of South Glamorgan until 2008, said the rumours were just "rumours, without any basis in reality" and that he never expected the Queen to abdicate.
He said: "Johann Lamont's He said: "Johann Lamont's stock response when faced with tough choices appears to be to abdicate the responsibility of political leadership and pass the buck to others."
Kazakhstani Deputy Foreign Minister Yerzhan Ashikbayev described Spanish King Juan Carlos's decision to abdicate as sad news, but one that he respected from the monarch who made immense contributions to bilateral relations.