Abdominal Cavity


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Abdominal Cavity

 

part of the secondary body cavity (coelom) of vertebrates; contains the viscera except for the kidneys, the heart and, in mammals, the lungs. In the adult stage of lower vertebrates, the canals uniting the abdominal cavity with the pericardial cavity are preserved. In many fish the abdominal cavity communicates with the external environment through abdominal pores. In cyclostomes and fish, the pericardial cavity is located in front of the abdominal cavity; in terrestrial vertebrates it moves back and opens into the abdominal cavity. In mammals, because of the formation of the diaphragm, the pericardial cavity and the anterior portion of the abdominal cavity (which contains the lungs) are separated from the rest of the abdominal cavity. In the majority of mammals, the abdominal cavity extends through the inguinal canal to the region of the scrotum. If, with age, the inguinal canal closes (for example, in carnivores and primates), the abdominal cavity becomes completely separated from the scrotal cavity. In the embryo the abdominal cavity is formed by the joining of paired coelomic cavities, which lie between the laminae of the lateral plate. The parietal peritoneum arises from the external (parietal) laminae of the lateral plate. The visceral peritoneum—that is, the serous membrane of the intestines and other internal organs—is formed from the visceral laminae (splanchnopleures); the mesentery is formed by the fusion of these layers. In cyclostomes, the abdominal cavity is lined with ciliated epithelium; in all other vertebrates it is lined with squamous epithelium.

In man the abdominal cavity, or stomach cavity, is bounded by the ventrolateral muscles of the abdomen, the lumbar vertebrae, the quadratus lumborum muscles, the diaphragm, and, below, the cavity of the pelvis major and pelvis minor. In the abdominal cavity are located the gastrointestinal tract (from the abdominal portion of the esophagus to the rectum), liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, and urogenital organs. Most of the unpaired abdominal organs are covered by the peritoneum, which marks the boundary of the peritoneal cavity (part of the abdominal cavity). The peritoneum in the region of the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity separates the peritoneal cavity from the retroperitoneal space, in which the paired abdominal organs (kidneys, adrenals, and ureters) and large blood vessels and nerve ganglia—surrounded by fatty tissue—are located.

REFERENCE

Sinel’nikov, R. D. Atlas anatomii cheloveka, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Moscow, 1963.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pneumoperitoneum was relieved; CO2 in the abdominal cavity was discharged; then the cannula was removed, and the small incision was sutured.
The umbilical lining was removed, abdominal muscles were restructured and the various organs were returned to the abdominal cavity.
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The displaced viscera were taken to the abdominal cavity and arranged in their correct anatomic position.
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There were the following main indicators in laparoscopy research of patients in postoperative period: 1) manifestation of clinical symptoms of peritonitis against a background of complex conservative therapy in postoperative period; 2) inadequate course of postoperative period in patients were operated against a background of peritonitis (pain, rise of temperature, breathing disorders, tachycardia), 3) availability of free fluid in abdominal cavity in ultrasound investigation, 4) impossibility of transdermal sanitization of abscess under ultrasound control, 5) absence of massive, dense fibrin layers and paralytic ileus with sharp dilatation of intestinal loops.
It pumps the excessive fluid from the abdominal cavity into the bladder, from which it can be excreted by the patient in the natural manner.
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