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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an anatomically isolated cluster of nerve cells (neurons), nerve fibers, and tissues, found in many invertebrates, all vertebrates, and man. In vertebrates, ganglia are located along the nerve stems.

Intervertebral ganglia, ganglia near the vertebrae, prevertebral ganglia, and ganglia enclosed in the thickness of the walls of the internal organs are topographically distinguished from each other. The intervertebral ganglia and similar ganglia are made up of sensory pseudo-unipolar neurons. Other ganglia are part of the peripheral sector of the autonomous nervous system and are mainly clusters of effector multipolar autonomous neurons, including sensory and association neurons. The clusters of neurons in each ganglion are surrounded by a layer of satellite cells, outside of which there is a thin capsule of connective tissue. Between the groups of neurons there are thicker connective tissue layers forming the connective tissue base, or stroma, of the ganglion. On the outside the ganglion is covered by a fibrous capsule, from which blood vessels reach the ganglion by way of the connective tissue layers. The synapses (nerve fibers that form the end, or terminal, contacts) lead to the bodies and branches of the autonomic neurons. In invertebrates, the ganglia arecoordinating centers carrying out the functions of a central nervous system. By means of reciprocal connections the ganglia in invertebrates form a single system that corresponds in its arrangement to the overall structure of their bodies.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A group of nerve cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. an encapsulated collection of nerve-cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord
2. a cystic tumour on a tendon sheath or joint capsule
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The connective tissue covering the abdominal ganglion was partially removed to allow the penetration of SN and CMN.
Using standard stimulating and recording techniques, we looked for monosynaptic connections between a given LE siphon SN and an L[F.sub.s] siphon CMN in the abdominal ganglion, a siphon PMN at the distal end of the siphon nerve, or both.
To address this question, we applied the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin either centrally at the SN cell body and central synapses in the abdominal ganglion, or distally at SN peripheral synapses.
Before the onset of each experiment, two motor neurons, whose intracellular activation produced contraction of the siphon, were identified in the abdominal ganglion. These neurons were loaded with either botulinum toxin or control solution.
It is almost as if the Aplysia nervous system is designed so that every cell in the abdominal ganglion cares about this (and perhaps every) sensory stimulus.
Neuronal activity during different behaviors suggests a distributed neuronal organization in the Aplysia abdominal ganglion Science 263: 820-823.
Hundreds of neurons in the Aplysia abdominal ganglion are active during the gill-withdrawal reflex.
A pair of the axons of the thoracic stretch receptor cells (rapidly and slowly adapting cells) bifurcate at the 3rd nerve root and course in two directions in pairs, one runs towards the subesophageal ganglion and the other towards the 6th abdominal ganglion (unpub.