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Related to abrasive: Abrasive wear


material used to grind, smooth, cut, or polish another substance. Natural abrasives include sandsand,
rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter, the particles being smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.
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, pumicepumice
, volcanic glass formed by the solidification of lava that is permeated with gas bubbles. Usually found at the surface of a lava flow, it is colorless or light gray and has the general appearance of a rock froth.
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, corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
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, and ground quartzquartz,
one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2.
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. Carborundum (silicon carbidesilicon carbide,
chemical compound, SiC, that forms extremely hard, dark, iridescent crystals that are insoluble in water and other common solvents. Widely used as an abrasive, it is marketed under such familiar trade names as Carborundum and Crystolon.
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) and aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 (aluminum oxide) are important synthetically produced abrasives. The hardest abrasives are natural or synthetic diamondsdiamond,
mineral, one of two crystalline forms of the element carbon (see allotropy), the hardest natural substance known, used as a gem and in industry. Properties
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, used in the form of dust or minuscule stones.


A small, hard, sharp-cornered rock fragment, used by natural agents in abrading rock material or land surfaces. Also known as abrasive ground.
A material used, usually as a grit sieved by a specified mesh but also as a solid shape or as a paste or slurry or air suspension, for grinding, honing, lapping, superfinishing, polishing, pressure blasting, or barrel tumbling.
A material sintered or formed into a solid mass such as a hone or a wheel disk, cone, or burr for grinding or polishing other materials.
Having qualities conducive to or derived from abrasion. Also known as abradant.


A material of extreme hardness that is used to shape other materials by a grinding or abrading action. Abrasive materials may be used either as loose grains, as grinding wheels, or as coatings on cloth or paper. They may be formed into ceramic cutting tools that are used for machining metal in the same way that ordinary machine tools are used. Because of their superior hardness and refractory properties, they have advantages in speed of operation, depth of cut, and smoothness of finish.

Abrasive products are used for cleaning and machining all types of metal, for grinding and polishing glass, for grinding logs to paper pulp, for cutting metals, glass, and cement, and for manufacturing many miscellaneous products such as brake linings and nonslip floor tile.

The important natural abrasives are diamond, corundum, emery, garnet, feldspar, calcined clay, lime, chalk, and silica, SiO2, in its many forms—sandstone, sand, flint, and diatomite.

The synthetic abrasive materials are silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, titanium carbide, and boron carbide. The synthesis of diamond puts this material in the category of manufactured abrasives.


A hard substance for removing material by grinding, lapping, honing, and polishing. Common abrasives include silicon carbide, boron carbide, diamond, emery, garnet, quartz, tripoli, pumice, diatomite, metal shot, grit, and various sands; usually adhered to paper or cloth.
References in periodicals archive ?
Biomimetic Geometrical Structure Surfaces with Anti-abrasion Function and Their Abrasive Wear against Soil.
Miller (Miller 2004) shows trials of a micromachining with abrasive suspension jets with a strongly reduced suspension jet diameter including the possibilities for an appropriate suspension valve.
Chukar's Waterjet Cyclone abrasive removal system is a cyclonic garnet extraction machine for removal of garnet abrasive per minute removes up from any waterjet cutting system, said a statement.
Conference on Abrasive Technology in China (14th: 2007: Nanjing, China) Ed.
Abrasive wear is material removal by hard particles that have embedded themselves into a soft surface and plow grooves into the opposing softer surface.
SDK) has doubled its production capacity of Single Morundum - titania-doped fused alumina abrasives used in grinding stones for hard materials - from 2,000 tons to 4,000 tons per year.
Lu also wonders whether Neolithic societies polished jade with diamond, since it would have been a more efficient abrasive than quartz.
The brushes are nylon filaments that contain an abrasive grit.
Abrasive content, such as titanium fillers, silicates, oxides, and many other web additives, will erode the extreme tips of upper and lower blade edges.
First, the slurry of used abrasive and kerf material usually packs into almost a solid mass in the receptical tank of a typical water machine.
Companies operating abrasive waterjets will want to look at the WardJet abrasive recycling system, winner of the 2001 Technology Award from the Waterjet Technology Association.
Standard Abrasives, which manufactures industrial abrasive products, has operated out of its Chatsworth plant for about eight years, officials said.