abrasive

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abrasive,

material used to grind, smooth, cut, or polish another substance. Natural abrasives include sandsand,
rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter, the particles being smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.
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, pumicepumice
, volcanic glass formed by the solidification of lava that is permeated with gas bubbles. Usually found at the surface of a lava flow, it is colorless or light gray and has the general appearance of a rock froth.
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, corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
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, and ground quartzquartz,
one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2.
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. Carborundum (silicon carbidesilicon carbide,
chemical compound, SiC, that forms extremely hard, dark, iridescent crystals that are insoluble in water and other common solvents. Widely used as an abrasive, it is marketed under such familiar trade names as Carborundum and Crystolon.
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) and aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 (aluminum oxide) are important synthetically produced abrasives. The hardest abrasives are natural or synthetic diamondsdiamond,
mineral, one of two crystalline forms of the element carbon (see allotropy), the hardest natural substance known, used as a gem and in industry. Properties
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, used in the form of dust or minuscule stones.
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abrasive

[ə′brās·əv]
(geology)
A small, hard, sharp-cornered rock fragment, used by natural agents in abrading rock material or land surfaces. Also known as abrasive ground.
(materials)
A material used, usually as a grit sieved by a specified mesh but also as a solid shape or as a paste or slurry or air suspension, for grinding, honing, lapping, superfinishing, polishing, pressure blasting, or barrel tumbling.
A material sintered or formed into a solid mass such as a hone or a wheel disk, cone, or burr for grinding or polishing other materials.
Having qualities conducive to or derived from abrasion. Also known as abradant.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Abrasive

A material of extreme hardness that is used to shape other materials by a grinding or abrading action. Abrasive materials may be used either as loose grains, as grinding wheels, or as coatings on cloth or paper. They may be formed into ceramic cutting tools that are used for machining metal in the same way that ordinary machine tools are used. Because of their superior hardness and refractory properties, they have advantages in speed of operation, depth of cut, and smoothness of finish.

Abrasive products are used for cleaning and machining all types of metal, for grinding and polishing glass, for grinding logs to paper pulp, for cutting metals, glass, and cement, and for manufacturing many miscellaneous products such as brake linings and nonslip floor tile.

The important natural abrasives are diamond, corundum, emery, garnet, feldspar, calcined clay, lime, chalk, and silica, SiO2, in its many forms—sandstone, sand, flint, and diatomite.

The synthetic abrasive materials are silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, titanium carbide, and boron carbide. The synthesis of diamond puts this material in the category of manufactured abrasives.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

abrasive

A hard substance for removing material by grinding, lapping, honing, and polishing. Common abrasives include silicon carbide, boron carbide, diamond, emery, garnet, quartz, tripoli, pumice, diatomite, metal shot, grit, and various sands; usually adhered to paper or cloth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
They outline specific steps for these conversations: staying focused, noticing when safety is at risk, staying in dialogue even when angry, speaking persuasively and not abrasively, listening when others blow up or clam up, and turning conversations into action and results.
In two striking unions, the Sphinx interacts abrasively with a lion: Couch by his side upon the grass and set your white teeth in his throat And when you hear his dying note lash your long flanks of polished brass (ll.
Or it could be put a little less abrasively by contending that, while mission discourse led to an internalized 'self-contempt' and underscored a black inferiority towards whites, it also provided a means of explaining inequalities and (especially in its 'more millennialist versions') a hope of overcoming them (Wardlow, p.
From the widely broadcasted monthly concerts of the legendary Om Kolthoum that saw people from different social backgrounds gathering round a radio to listen to the late singer's latest gems to the abrasively loud melody of Arabic pop music pumping from the stereos of taxis across the country today.
Candupandita renders the crow's repeated cawing as kim kim and the kokila's repetitive reply as tuh[i.bar] tuh[i.bar], while the fifteenth-century commentator N[a.bar]r[a.bar]yana has the crow abrasively repeating kau kau, while the cuckoo tuh[i.bar] tuh[i.bar] ("which two, which two?"; "tu and hi, tu and hi").
In contrast to copper powder particles, the zinc particles can enter the low temperature reaction with oxygen and can abrasively affect the oxidized surfaces [11, 12].
At the Scarlets, the raw but abrasively effective Andy Fenby has been one of the finds of the season, while you would hope the hugely experienced Mark Jones will once again recover from knee damage to force his way back into the frame next term.
Mezzo Liora Grodnikaite was the girlfriend, acting delightfully, though singing a bit abrasively in a role that, from hands more conventional than those of Janacek, would have been for an operetta soubrette.
(4) In her second performance of the song, she sings that verse not only emphatically but notably more abrasively and harshly than in the first performance.
Crucial Conversations offers detailed instructions on how to stay focused, how to speak persuasively and not abrasively, how to be a good listener during difficult dialogue, and how to turn these crucial conversations into action and results.
Now, I do not mean to cast aspersions on all Bulgarian police officers, since I have met all kinds in my, admittedly infrequent, run-ins with law enforcement during the past decade: from the polite to the abrasively rude and plain disinterested.
The response is to restrain them in chairs, force tubes through their noses and throats abrasively enough to draw blood, and pump food into their stomachs - a procedure causing excruciating pain.