If the least

absolute deviation is used for the first-order distance, the hamming weight expressions (Formulae (1) and (2)) described in Section 3.

Sarper, "Minimizing the sum of

absolute deviations about a common due date for the two-machine flow shop problem," Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol.

Table 10 presents the country-level mean

absolute deviations of two interesting country groups and the within-country variability at NUTS 1 and NUTS2 levels of the countries in these groups.

6 Minimization of the maximum Z = min [max[absolute

absolute deviation between value of daily resource usage and [R.

Least

Absolute Deviation method (LAD) is firstly proposed by mathematicians Boscovitch and Laplace during 1755-1757 when they were studying on the linear fitting.

When the core PCE price index is used, Taylor 1993 produces smaller deviations except for the average

absolute deviation from 2002 to 2007 and the cumulative deviation from 1970 to 1982.

Other known reasons, apart from the above, are said to be the lack of good governance both at provincial and federal levels, ad-hocism, widespread corruption, unfair business practices, monopolistic culture, and an

absolute deviation from officially announced policies and procedures.

Wavelet coefficients statistics include Mean, Median, Mode, Maximum, Minimum, Range, Standard deviation, Median

absolute deviation, Mean

absolute deviation.

The criteria used to select the best growth curve model adjustment were: asymptotic standard deviation (ASD); graphic analyzes of curves observed and estimated; coefficient of determination (R2) estimated according to SAMPAIO (2007); and the average

absolute deviation (AAD), calculated in according to the function below

An

absolute deviation criterion gives rise to quantile-based allocations, whereby diversification is reflected by lowering the confidence level of value-at-risk (VaR) measures applied at subportfolio level.

Ra is the arithmetic mean of

absolute deviation of all points of the profile from middle line within the reference length 1r.

a]) which is a measures of the relative

absolute deviation in percent, from the experimental values is calculated as: