The first was that, in comparison with the absolute instruction, the effect of the relative instructio would be to cause subjects to discriminate more among the paintings, and so to increase the spread of the ratings they assigned.
It is clear from Table 1 that the mean spread of the subjects' ratings under the relative instructions (1.30) is greater than th mean for those who rated under the absolute instructions (1.17).
Under the relative instructions, the spread of subjects' ratings was averaging at 89 per cent of the maximum; whereas under the absolute instructions, the level was at 80 per cent.
Under the Relative Instructions, subjects tended to give higher mean ratings than under the Absolute Instructions. From inspection of the marginal row means in Table 2 (2.90 for the Relative Instructions, 2.76 for the Absolute), the difference might appear small, but it is a difference of nearly half a standard deviation.