Note that [D.sub.f] has two absorbing states
corresponding to success and failure of execution, respectively.
In the HMF setting, under PI dynamics, when [epsilon] [member of] (0,1) the final state for the population is the absorbing state
[rho] =0 (full defection) when [epsilon] < c, [rho] = [rho] (0) when [epsilon] = c, and [rho] = 1 when [epsilon] > c.
[T.sub.w] includes [T.sub.S(1,0)[right arrow]s(w, .)], which is the transition time from initial state to any state with VM = w (and A U may be 0, 1, 2, ..., w); [[DELTA].sub.t,w], which stands for the time needed for a state with VM = w to evolve into the absorbing state
and to w, the RTO at window size.
Clearly, unemployment has become a much less absorbing state
for the whole working-age population, and this is particularly true for the younger age group.
Entities can be modelled in such a way that they leave the system without having to resort to the artificial device of an (Markov) absorbing state
. More importantly, it is easy to model entities entering the system so it becomes possible to model the behaviour of the overall system over time rather than just the particular cohort that was in the initial state.
For all possible values of the decision variables [[delta].sub.ij], the chain always exhibits absorbing states
. Specifically, a triple ([X.sub.1], [X.sub.2], [X.sub.3]) specifying the states of each individual can only be an absorbing state
if [X.sub.i] [member of] [S,S',R,V} for i = 1,2,3, because there is always a nonzero transition rate from any state containing an individual in states E, E',or I (Figure 1).
The r x r identity matrix I corresponds to transitions between absorbing states
. 0 is an r x (m - r) zero matrix, because transitions from absorbing states
to transient states are not possible.
Each row of Exhibit 8 represents the transient states, and each column represents the absorbing states
. Notice that a receivable in month 0 has an 89% probability of collection and an 11% probability of write-off.