The absorption constant
, relaxation time and AC conductivity is maximum at room temperature and minimum at 70[degrees]C (Figure 5, 6 and 7).
(16) By the bootstrap technique, the bias and precision of the selected population pharmacokinetic model was examined, with 1000 bootstrap data sets selected and the final pharmacokinetic parameters calculated, including the absorption constant (tvKa), the volume (tvV), and the elimination constant (tvKe) (Table 3).
Cockatoo Mean 95% CI tv[K.sub.a], L/min 0.0039 [+ or -] 0.0026 -0.0014-0.0093 tvV, L 0.07 0.058-0.087 tv[K.sub.e], L/min 0.0015 [+ or -] 0.0002 0.001-0.002 African grey parrot Mean 95% CI tv[K.sub.a], L/min 185.0020 [+ or -] 0.0012 185.001-185.005 tvV, L 0.047 0.032-0.07 tv[K.sub.e], L/min 0.0011 [+ or -] 0.0003 0.0007-0.0019 Abbreviations: CI indicates confidence interval; tv[K.sub.a] absorption constant; tvV, absorption volume; tv[K.sub.e], elimination constant.
where [K.sub.eff] is the absorption constant, [I.sub.x = 0] is the intensity in the joining plane, and x is the coordinate.
Absorption constant [K.sub.eff] is a function of the wavelength, the radiation introduced, the plastic, and the additives [7, 9].
This model is limited to describe the temperature development in the transparent and the absorbent joining components for a small absorption constant
. According to this, more energy is transferred to the absorbent component than to the transparent one.
The laser beam is transmitted virtually unimpeded through the first part before being completely absorbed in the surface layers of the second part (high absorption constant) (see Fig.
Initial attempts to compile an analytical model by analogy to thermal impulse welding (13) provided serviceable results for temperature progression in cases where the absorbing part had a high absorption constant. With lower absorption constants, also, the introduction of a correction factor gave calculated melt layer thicknesses that tallied well with the measured thicknesses.
An increase in the absorption constant and hence the introduction of the laser radiation into the layers close to the surface of the absorbing component (surface absorption) ultimately lead to uniformly deep melting in both parts being joined by laser transmission.
where K is the absorption constant describing the absorption properties of the material.
The absorption constant that describes the absorption properties of the colored part being joined is the sole degree of freedom in the simulation of temperature profiles with the aid of finite element analysis.
Opaque glazes were prepared to determine the optical absorption constants
for three primary pigments and frit suspension from the reflectance curves measured with a spectrophotometer.