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a trend in painting formulated in the art academies of the 16th through 19th centuries and founded on dogmatic adherence to the importance of external forms in classical art.

Academism made possible the systemization of artistic education and the strengthening of classical tradition, which were transformed into a system of “eternal” canons and instructions. Considering contemporary reality unworthy of “exalted” art, academism presented instead timeless and nonnational norms of beauty, idealized images, and subjects remote from reality (from ancient mythology, the Bible, and ancient history), which it emphasized by conventionality and abstraction in modeling, color, and drawing and theatricality of composition, gesture, and pose. As the official school accepted by most monarchies and bourgeois states, academism turned its idealistic aesthetics against progressive national realistic art.

Academism arose at the end of the 16th century in Italy. The Bologna school—which formulated rules for the imitation of the art of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the French academism of the second half of the 17th and 18th centuries (C. Le Brun and others)—mastered a group of the principles and methods of classicism and served as a model for many European and American academies of fine arts. During the 19th century, the leaders of academism—such as A. Canova in Italy, D. Ingres in France, and F. A. Bruni in Russia—insisted on the emasculated tradition of classicism and fought against the romantics, the realists, and the naturalists but accepted some of the outer aspects of their methods, reducing academism to eclectic salon art. Academism declined under the blows of the realists, including the Russian peredvizhniki (members of the Society of Wandering Exhibitions), and bourgeois individualistic opposition; it was retained only in part at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century in a group of countries, for the most part in the renovated forms of neoclassicism. The term “academism” is also understood more broadly to mean any canonization or transformation of the ideals and principles of the art of the past into immutable norms. In this sense one speaks of the academism of several schools of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, which canonized the heritage of the ancient Greek classics, or of a group of modern artists who have tried to revive the concepts of schools and currents which have become historically outdated.


References in periodicals archive ?
While there is some truth to Jacoby's characterization - I too question the insularity of academia - Jacoby's narrative is dubious in its representation of a fall from grace (the New York Intellectuals were not by any means a broadly popular movement, and in some ways they represent an earlier, albeit more urbane, academicism [think of Lionel Trilling]) and in its representation of the present moment (many current academic intellectuals, such as Edward Said or Noam Chomsky, have decided public force, probably more than any of the New York Intellectuals).
Debora's watercolors and oil paintings are wonderfully lively and inventive, as are her murals, inspired by a visit to Mexico in 1946--especially when compared to the stale academicism then prevalent in Colombia, where modernism at most meant a certain Impressionist influence that arrived only in the '30s.
Overall, there is a vague feeling of academicism, a sense that this has all been seen and done before-- provoked, paradoxically, not so much by the artists' obsequiousness to the past as by a forgetfulness of it that has enabled an unconscious repetition of actions and works seen only a few years ago.
Italian artist was a bold innovator, who challenged the main artistic trends of that era - mannerism and academicism, contrasting them with harsh realism and the democracy of his art.
could not find room within the boundaries of the chilled academicism of Protestantism, in his own creative consciousness, and his unconscious invariably resided in the deepest .
For example, he was obliged to leave the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Montreal after delivering a lecture declaring war on academicism - so instead he taught at the more experimental Ecole du Meuble.
occasionally pedantic tones of English academicism, would be hard to
His polemic destroyed the empty academicism of the liberal dilution of the Greek traditions of the classics, just as it destroyed the narrow-minded admiration for the Middle Ages, the obscurantist Christianism [sic], of the romantics.
Michel Houellebecq's scans of his heart, right hand, head, and lungs--presented, a la Felix Gonzalez-Torres, in stacks of takeaway prints in the waiting room of a medical-imaging lab--appear as a parody of bloated academicism.
On the one hand, part of "Munro's peculiar Spanish canonization" is developed (144), while on the other, literary criticism finds in Munro a paradigmatic literary figure in so far as literary scholars, experts and writers need to find a balance between academicism and readers' responses.
His work's progression was influenced by expressionism and early European modernism and he is seen as representing Greek art's moment of transcendence from the academicism of The Munich School.
Even though the ostensible goal is to eliminate any hint of academic "lecturing" from instruction, what has taken its place is the worst kind of academicism.