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in speech, emphasis given a particular sound, called prosodic systems in linguistics. There are three basic accentual methods: stress, tone, and length. In English each word has at least one primary stressed syllable, as in weath`er; words of several syllables may also have secondary stress as in el`e-va'tor. In English, vowels in unaccented syllables are often pronounced as ə regardless of the orthographic letter. Thus, the vowels of the second syllables in cir`cus, na`tion, ther`mos, eas`ily, saun`a, and sor`rel are all pronounced the same. Sentence stress, known as intonation or contour, includes three basic patterns: the statement, It's a dog, where the pitchpitch,
in music, the position of a tone in the musical scale, today designated by a letter name and determined by the frequency of vibration of the source of the tone. Pitch is an attribute of every musical tone; the fundamental, or first harmonic, of any tone is perceived as
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 pattern is level-high-low; the yes/no question, Is it a dog? where the pattern is level-high pitch; and the command, Catch him! which begins high and ends low. Both word stress and sentence stress occur in English. However, emphasis of certain words within a sentence is optional. Tonal languages, such as Chinese and Swedish, have a system of high:low and/or rising:falling tones. Duration or length of sounds (quantity) is used in some languages to create systematic differences. No language uses all three types of accentual systems. In writing, accent is also used to show syllable stress as in Spanish María (acute accent) and Italian pietà (grave accent). Such written symbols, misleadingly termed accents, are often used only to signal specific pronunciation rather than stress, as in French élève. The word accent in English is also understood to mean the pronunciation and speech patterns that are typical of a speech community; it also denotes the particular manner of uttered expression that lends a special shade of meaning, as when one speaks in harsh or gentle accents. See also ablautablaut
[Ger.,=off-sound], in inflection, vowel variation (as in English sing, sang, sung, song) caused by former differences in syllabic accent. In a prehistoric period the corresponding inflected forms of the language (known through internal reconstruction) had
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 and phoneticsphonetics
, study of the sounds of languages from three basic points of view. Phonetics studies speech sounds according to their production in the vocal organs (articulatory phonetics), their physical properties (acoustic phonetics), or their effect on the ear (auditory
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1. Music
a. stress placed on certain notes in a piece of music, indicated by a symbol printed over the note concerned
b. the rhythmic pulse of a piece or passage, usually represented as the stress on the first beat of each bar
2. Maths either of two superscript symbols indicating a specific unit, such as feet (ʹ), inches (ʺ), minutes of arc (ʹ), or seconds of arc (ʺ)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


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References in periodicals archive ?
Wallace's assertion is challenging, because just as there are English poems in syllabics, there are many kinds of poems in these other kinds of accentual meter.
For free verse Attridge has to find other terms and methods to study its very different way of moving (more on that later); for iambic pentameter (and a few of its metrical cousins) he adapts the system that has worked so well for accentual verse.
Yet for all that Coleridge's interest in accentual meter is well-documented, the poem at hand offers a very different specimen from "Christabel," and never more so than in its studied deployment of the eleventh syllable, all the more significant for its not bearing stress.
Chapter 2 ("The Accentual Paradigm in Early English Metrics") provides a vivid account of the rise of what Cornelius calls the "accentual paradigm" of English alliterative metrics, followed by an endorsement of a new paradigm to supersede it.
A familiarity with the rhythmic and accentual flow of ancient Greek oratory is a crucial component of authentic performance throughout this score.
Like Crapsey, Niedecker devotes her primary attention to syllables and shows a relative disregard for accentual meter.
This designer excels at shapely dresses that accentual the body in a flattening way yet not hugging it tightly.
If we regard these forms as quantitative, we have to admit that often in syllables, where the quantity prescribed by the scheme is missing, it is compensated with a stress, and if we regard these forms as accentual, we have to recognise that often a stress prescribed by the scheme is absent, but it is compensated with quantity.
Their topics include prosodic allomorphs in the Estonian declension system, the nature of perceptual differences between accentual peaks and plateaux, late pitch accents in hat and dip intonation patterns, meter-specific timing and pronunciation in German poetry and prose, and anticipatory effects of intonation.
These distinctions are principally based on a difference between national languages that is found in their structure: in prosody (the relationships of accents and syllables in accentual and syllable-counting verse).
Espaillat's seven-line stanzas of accentual trimeter and tetrameter with some variations are unified by a refrain, "Past the boundaries of knowing," that encapsulates the theme of the poem and ties it to the substance of each individual stanza.