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musical instrument consisting of a rectangular bellows expanded and contracted between the hands. Buttons or keys operated by the player open valves, allowing air to enter or to escape. The air sets in motion free reeds, frequently made of metal. The length, density, shape, and elasticity of the reeds determine the pitch. The first accordions were made in 1822 by Friedrich Buschmann in Berlin. Bouton added a keyboard 30 years later in Paris, thus producing a piano accordion. The accordion is frequently used in folk music. See concertinaconcertina
, musical instrument whose tone is produced by free reeds. It was invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1829. It is a chromatic instrument similar to the accordion, but its bellows are attached to hexagonal blocks having handles and buttons (finger pistons), and it is
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(1) The general name, first used in 1829, for reed instruments with prepared ready chords for the left hand. When one button is pressed, a whole chord sounds.

(2) The name widely used in Russia to refer to the baian with a piano-type keyboard for the right hand.


Das Akkordeon. Leipzig, 1964.



a musical instrument with free-beating metal reeds which are vibrated by wind pumped by bellows.

The German master K. F. L. Buschmann invented the first manual accordion in 1822. In the 1830’s and 1840’s the production of accordions arose in Russia, in Tula. Russian masters developed varieties of two basic types of accordion. In the first type, every button emits a different sound depending on whether the bellows are compressed or expanded. Examples of the first type are the Tula, the Saratov, the cherepashka, the Bologoe, the Beloborodov, the Kasimov, the St. Petersburg (a forerunner of the baian), and the mariiskaia marla-karmon’. They have the usual sound distribution in the diatonic scale: C1, E1, G1, C2, E2, G2, C3 when the bellows are expanded, and D1, F1, A1, B1, D2, F2, A2 when they are compressed. In the second type of accordion the expanding and compressing of the bellows does not change the pitch of sounds. Some accordions of this type are the viatskaia, the livenka, the rusianka, the eletskaia roial’naia (a forerunner of the accordeon), the Siberia, and the khromka (chromatic accordion), as well as national accordions, such as the Tatar, the kubos, the pshine, the komuz and the selective Azerbaijan. Besides the accordions listed above, accordions with one or two rows of keys as well as Viennese and German ones have always been available in Russia. Accordions are known as the most common musical folk instrument.


Novosel’skii, A. Kniga o garmonike. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.
Blagodatov, G. Russkaia garmonika. Leningrad, 1960.
Mirek, A. Spravochnik po garmonikam. [Moscow] 1968.



1. a portable box-shaped instrument of the reed organ family, consisting of metallic reeds that are made to vibrate by air from a set of bellows controlled by the player's hands. Notes are produced by means of studlike keys
2. short for piano accordion
References in periodicals archive ?
Fiddler and singer Morris Ardoin is the son of famed Creole accordionist Alphonse 'Bois Sec' Ardoin, who's still playing today, at the age of 87.
They were playing just by the steps of the cathedral where some of the young Mozart's music was first heard, and they were selling their CD, which sounds just as impressive in the home as it did in its baroque surroundings - the accordionist in particular was a man of remarkable musicianship.
Technically, it's a collaboration with Finnish pianist Timo Alakotila, but the line-up also includes fellow accordionist Maria Kalaniemi and jazz/Latin trumpeter Shanti Paul Jayasinha, who concentrates on the flugelhorn throughout.
All the songs were in French and, although accordionist Yves Lambert made a few brief introductions in English, the audience could have done with a little more help in knowing what the songs were about (I'm thinking in particular of a beautiful sounding ballad performed by Bordeleau in the first half)
THE accordionist who played the tune of the Captain Pugwash TV series has died.
The Symphony Orchestra there found there was no accordionist available in the Orient capable of playing in an orchestral situation - ie , to read music, follow the conductor and balance his sound.
Charms Of The Night Sky are something else again, with violinist Mark Feldman, accordionist Guy Klucevsek and bassist Greg Cohen painting extremely evocative chamber textures, Douglas timing his speckled spurts carefully, rationing solos in favour of an ensemble glow.
Newman and Jo-el Sonnier, and such players as Eddie Lejeune (son of pioneering accordionist Iry) and Wallace ``Cheese'' Read, whose ``Fiddle Stomp'' sounds pretty amateurish, but is utterly captivating.
SINGER Annie Lennox has revealed her greatest musical inspiration - the late Scottish accordionist Sir Jimmy Shand.
The brilliant musicians in Atzmon's band are as hybrid as the music they play, including a British pianist, Italian accordionist, and Romanian violinist.
Over the years Peter has made albums with Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead, Byrds guitarist Clarence White, Beatles producer George Martin, Tex-Mex accordionist Flaco Jimenez, Ry Cooder and many more .
ACCORDIONIST Jack Emblow will be at Coventry's Leofric Hotel on January 20 for another in the beat series of jazz lunches which have proved so popular.