acculturation

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acculturation,

culture changes resulting from contact among various societies over time. Contact may have distinct results, such as the borrowing of certain traits by one cultureculture,
in anthropology, the integrated system of socially acquired values, beliefs, and rules of conduct which delimit the range of accepted behaviors in any given society. Cultural differences distinguish societies from one another.
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 from another, or the relative fusion of separate cultures. Early studies of acculturation reacted against the predominant trend of trying to reconstruct cultures of presumably isolated societies. Such work was faulted for implying that various cultural groups enjoyed an unchanging, precontact period. In this view, the anthropologist's job seemed quite simple, since each culture could be perceived as a unitary whole. Interactions with other peoples have, in fact, always been a significant feature of social life. Early studies of contact called attention to resulting social and individual psychological disturbances. Studies today often call attention to the development of one complex world system, in which some societies dominate others economically, politically, and socially. Many cultural theorists also observe the ways in which cultural groups resist domination, often working against acculturation in the process. Syncretism occurs when a subordinate group molds elements of a dominant culture to fit its own traditions. Acculturation differs from assimilation, in which different ethnic groups combine to form a new culture.

acculturation

  1. (especially in CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY) a process in which contacts between different cultural groups lead to the acquisition of new cultural patterns by one, or perhaps both groups, with the adoption of all or parts of the other's culture.
  2. any transmission of culture between groups, including transfer between generations (although in this instance the terms ENCULTURATION and SOCIALIZATION are more usual).

Acculturation

 

the process of mutual influence of cultures; the total or partial acceptance by one people of the culture of another, usually more developed, people.

The term acculturation first received scholarly usage in the USA in the 1930’s in connection with a study of the contemporary culture of the American Indians. Later, American ethnographers also studied the acculturation of the peoples of Asia, Africa, and Oceania, using the term to conceal the enforced assimilation of oppressed peoples.

After the war the problem of acculturation occupied a prominent position in the works of scholars in India and Latin America—that is, in countries where national consolidation involved a population made up of groups with diverse origins and various levels of cultural and historical development.

The study of the processes of acculturation demands a historical approach to the culture of the peoples being studied. In Soviet literature the term acculturation has not been given an independent meaning, but the processes it designates have been successfully studied by Soviet ethnographers as processes of assimilation and rapprochement of peoples.

REFERENCE

Bakhta, V. M. “Problema akkul’turatsii v sovremennoi etnograficheskoi literature SShA.” In the anthology Sovremennaia amerikanskaia etnografiia. Moscow, 1963. (With bibliography.)

V. M. BAKHTA

References in periodicals archive ?
Given the dearth of research on deportation and its implications for the health and well-being of migrants, this exploratory qualitative study describes women's experiences in and adaptation to the post-deportation environment; we propose these are their "acculturative trajectories".
This process begins with acculturation and continues with changes in subjective social status, discrimination experiences, and changes in ethnic social identity and acculturative stress that can lead to dissonant acculturation and ultimately depressive symptoms.
Meanwhile the term "acculturative stress" is used to describe the issues and challenges immigrants experience in the process of acculturation.
This may indicate the importance of traditional acculturative coping strategy as a protective resource against perceived stress.
Although the experience of acculturative stress might be similar to both international and first-generation immigrant students, international students might have additional stress from maintaining their visa status, lack of family support and possible economic pressure (Poyeazli & Grahame, 2007).
Pre-immigration beliefs of life success, post-immigration experiences, and acculturative stress: South Asia immigrants in the United States.
The five factors were: (1) Future Experiences in Athletic Coaching, (2) Acculturative Sports Participation, (3) Current Sports Observation, (4) Identity of Athletic Coaches, and (5) Reputation of Athletic Coaches.
What is more, since these interpretive orientations are a prerequisite for all action in the world, Byrne explains, Burke possesses an awareness of how the stakes are thus raised for the acculturative process by which these orientations are formed.
In studies on Asian Americans, social support has been negatively associated with acculturative stress and depression (Mui, 2001; Yeh & Inose, 2003).
Frequently asked questions are, why are some migrants more successful than others in meeting acculturative demands, what determines the choice of acculturation styles, and which factors contribute to an explanation of the differences in acculturation experience and in acculturation outcome?
The present study explored the difference in acculturative stress and health with varying length of stay and examined length of stay as a significant predictor of acculturative stress and health.