Development threshold temperature (mean [+ or -] SE) (a) and effective accumulated temperature (mean degree-days [+ or -] SE) (a) of Tirathaba rufivena.
The development threshold temperatures (C) and effective accumulated temperatures (K) were calculated from the following formulae (Arbab et al.
Minimum threshold and effective accumulated temperatures can provide useful information for forecasting potential occurrence and distribution of insects (Zhou et al.
Accumulated temperature (growing degree days, GDD) is related to crop growth and development in cereals and grasses (Moore and Moser, 1995; Mitchell et al.
Accumulated temperature was calculated as the accumulation of mean daily temperature after seedling emergence (Tmax + Tram)/2 above a base temperature ([T.
Leaf appearance response to accumulated temperature for each species in each temperature regime was calculated by linear regression of the mean cumulative number of visible leaves for each group of five seedlings using post-emergence accumulated temperature above a base of 0[degrees]C as the independent variable.
1]) over a period of 70 GDD following appearance of each measured leaf by regression of lamina length against accumulated temperature (GDD).
The effect of cold treatment on cumulative tiller number was evaluated by regression of In(tiller number) against accumulated temperature and by comparison of the fitted slopes for each frequency treatment within species (Genstat, 2002).
001) linear relationship with post-emergence accumulated temperature above 0[degrees]C and for individual species of grass this linear relationship explained 88 to 97% of variation in mainstem leaf appearance.