[28.] Adina-Zada A, Zeczycki TN, Attwood PV Regulation of the structure and activity of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA
. Arch Biochem Biophys 2012;519:118-30.
Adipocyte RNA was analyzed for relative expression of DIO2, a gene associated with endocrine function (LEPTIN, ADIPOQ), mitochondrial function (cell death activator (CIDEA), ATP synthase (ATP5A), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B)), fatty acid [beta]-oxidation (acetyl CoA
dehydrogenase (ACADM)), fatty acid synthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and diglyceride acyltransferase (DGAT)), adipocyte function (PPARgamma (PPAR[gamma])), innate immunity (NLRP3), and select proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemoattractants (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF[alpha]), interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)).
Abbreviations: ACL, ATP citrate lyase; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; Acetyl CoA
, acetyl coenzyme A; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; HATs, histone acetyltransferases; HDACs, histone deacetylases; Hif1-[alpha], hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha; MAT, methionine adenosyltransferase; MAVS; mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein; Met, methionine; mTOR, mechanistic target of rapamycin; NF[kappa]B, nuclear factor kappa B; PARP, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; TCA, tricarboxylic acid cycle.
In addition to acetyl CoA
, ACS1 used isobutyryl-CoA as a substrate, while ACS2 used phenylacetyl-CoA and indoleacetyl-CoA.
Novel function of calreticulin: characterization of calreticulin as a transacetylase-mediating protein acetylator independent of acetyl CoA
using polyphenolic acetates.
In cells with mitochondria that contain enzymes capable of transforming acetate to acetyl CoA
, such as heart, skeletal muscle, and brain, the acetate is eventually metabolized to C[O.sub.2] in the TCA cycle.
C75 is a competitive irreversible, slow-binding inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FASN), cerulenin is suicide inhibitor of FASN, and TOFA is an allosteric inhibitor of acetyl CoA
carboxylase (ACC) [8-11].
Some of the amino acids whose uptake is increased during catabolite derepression by TOR mediated signalling, such as leucine, are common intermediates of major catabolic pathways such as acetyl CoA
, pyruvate, or 2-oxoglutarate.
(5) Fatty acid oxidation produces acetyl CoA
, [FADH.sub.2] and NADH.
The pyruvate generated by cholesterol oxidase activity can also get converted to acetyl CoA
and acetyl choline.
C Barnett et al 1994) balancing the acetyl CoA/Coa ratio and increasing the acetyl CoA
formation from piruvate (D.