Effects of dietary niacin on hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity (A), adiponectin receptor 2 (Adpn R2) gene expression (B) insulin receptor (INSR) gene expression (C), acetyl-CoA
carboxylase (ACC) gene expression (D), Apo B concentration (E), leptin receptor (LEPR) gene expression (F), adiponectin receptor 1 (Adpn R1) gene expression (G) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1 gene expression (H).
Overexpression of acetyl-CoA
synthetase increased the biomass and fatty acid proportion in microalga Schizochytrium.
05) levels of lipoprotein lipase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-II (CPT-II) and acetyl-Coa
carboxylase (ACC) than those fed diets 1 or 2.
FASN is the enzyme that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent condensation of acetyl-CoA
and malonyl-CoA to produce the saturated FA palmitate.
The result of increases in these pathways is an elevated amount of acetyl-CoA
being available for oxidation in the Krebs Cycle.
Expression of Acaca, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA
, was significantly increased in the IU+ and PN treatment groups.
The glyoxylate cycle bypasses the decarboxylation steps of Krebs cycle and causes the assimilation of liquid carbon from acetyl-CoA
In ketosis oxaloacetate level is decrease in metabolism and not sufficient acetyl-CoA
(co-enzyme A) produce in TCA cycle or ultimately ketogenesis (Krebs et al.
Acyl-CoA Synthetase and Acetyl-CoA
Synthetase are enzymes present in the fatty acid metabolism, preserved in D.
Comment: Biotin is a cofactor for acetyl-CoA
carboxylase, a potentially rate-limiting enzyme in myelin synthesis.
During the conversion of acetyl-CoA
into butyryl-CoA thiolase crotonase 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase are played vital roles as key enzymes.
16) Ethyl esters are comprised of ethanol and medium-chain fatty acids, and acetate esters are comprised of acetyl-CoA
and ethanol, or other complex alcohols derived from amino acid metabolism.