Most tissues are able to degrade FA to C[O.sub.2] and [H.sub.2]O, but the liver has the unique capacity to synthesise ketone bodies, acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate from acetyl-CoA
, supplying an important fuel to other organs, mainly the brain (9).
Unlike normal cells that preferentially use dietary (exogenous) lipids for synthesis of endogenous lipids, cancer cells prefer de novo synthesis.[sup.4] Consequently, cancer cells have elevated expression and activity of key enzymes in this process that can serve as a therapeutic target.[sup.4] The first step of fatty acid synthesis is the formation of malonyl-CoA by condensation of acetyl-CoA
and CO[sub.2] catalyzed by acetyl-CoA
carboxylase, which is the major site of the regulation of fatty acid synthesis.
carboxylase and fatty acid synthase activity and immunodetectable protein in adipose tissues of ruminants: Effect of temperature and feeding level.
The universal starting points are acetate (acetyl-CoA
), pyruvate, phosphoenol pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and 2-oxoglutarate.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of feeding triacylglycerols on milk fat composition, lipogenesis and polymer-protomer transition of acetyl-CoA
carboxylase in rat mammary gland.
Pyruvate is converted (through the actions of the thiamine-dependent enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase) into a molecule called acetyl-CoA
, which can then be fed into the second set of reactions, the citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle).
is an essential metabolic intermediate in the carbon metabolism of all organisms.
The monomeric composition of PHA polymers is determined by the substrate specificities of [beta]-ketothiolase and PHB synthase and by the availability of acetyl-CoA
These acids are made from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA
), which is also the starting material for biosynthesis of waxes, flavonoids, certain amino acids and other compounds.
This enzyme binds to both serotonin and a molecule called acetyl-CoA
, then attaches a fragment of acetyl-CoA
Second, the fact that detoxification of the two products seems to occur along the same metabolic pathway leading to acetyl-CoA
production, although ADH is not involved in acetic acid tolerance.
It has also been shown that the AD brain has decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex which generates acetyl-CoA
, the precursor of acetylcholine from pyruvate [41, 42], decreased activity of phosphofructokinase , and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase  but increased cerebral release of ammonia and amino acids [39, 40].